Category Archives: Literature review

Methods and Tools, Playacting and Focus Troupes

Original: Methods and Tools Playacting and Focus Troupes: Theather techniques for creating quick, intense, immersive, and engaging focus group sessions. Authors: Steve Sato and Tony Salvador Keywords: acting, design, product developing, theater techniques, Summary: Live Theater can create strong shared contexts in which the focus is on interaction. Through the researches live theater and improvisation can quickly immerse and involve participants in designing new products. Main Contents: 

The technics involve performing quick, intense and engaging activities. This activities focus on developing a shared context. They explore new product concept through using theater methods. Learn from how the participants and co-creater develop the new product and context for its use.

The workshops that they generated the collection of technics for new product development. Focus groups that are used to develop or evaluate new products and achieve some of achieve some of mockups. The result of the sessions contains comments and conversations about the product in context of the presentation.


Feasibility of the living canvas

Original: Naef, M. & Boyd, C. (2008). Feasibility of the Living Canvas – Restricting Projection to a Performer on Stage. Proceedings of the 16th ACM international conference on Multimedia, p. 589-598

Authors: Martin Naef, Cathie Boyd

Keywords: Projection systems, dynamic projection surface, virtual costumes

Summary: The idea for the living canvas is to capture the posture, silhouette and position of the actor and then use that as a projection along with a canvas as a stage background. For the reaction was divided into two area: the technical feasibility and the cooperation with stakeholders persons (such as actor, director). The developers of the living canvas presented as other future projects, so that they many new developed and evaluated.

Main Contents: In the paper the test environments and their results will be described in great detail. Here are just detailed information on stage and clothing, as they are for our interactive costumes most interesting.

Stage: It is so described that it consists of a regular projection screen and the actor is positioned in front of it. The technique for recording and projection will be installed in front of the stage. For the development was first worked on a small stage model with dolls as a performer on a table. Next, a laboratory environment has been created. This one had original size and could make calibrations.

Clothes: In this environment, they also tested various garments and fabrics, to see if they are suitable and how they look in the projected state. The clothes of the actor should preferably be diffuse pattern and no strong highlights to clearly reveal the silhouette, so you can well separate it from the background. The materials used should be matte white so that highlights are minimized. Different substances were illuminated, to see which is the best. Velvet was one of thefavorite. There are fewlimitations onthe design.

In order to develop the system, so that it can be used on a right theater stage, was the next step to test it with real actors. This was done in a week-long workshop in Glasgow. So the criteria of the developers could be tested under real conditions. There were mixed opinions of the people. At next followed more experiments, to get the system ready for a theater production.

Ideas for costume evaluation: The paper employ with costume, stage, lighting and much more, so that we can orient only on parts. In view of our evaluation, the idea is very good, only in scale and then to work in original size, so can errors discovered in small size. The many different tests and their approach (e.g. for the fabric) very interesting for us. Also the test in a workshop with the people who have to work with it later.

An Unfinished Drama: Designing Participation for the Theatrical Dance Performance Parcival XX-XI

Gesa Friederichs–Bu ̈ttner, Benjamin Walther–Franks, Rainer Malaka, (2012). An Unfinished Drama: Designing Participation for the Theatrical Dance Performance Parcival XX-XI “DIS 2012, June 11-15, 2012, Newcastle, UK.Copyright 2012 ACM 978-1-4503-1210-3/12/06…$10.00.”


Interaction; Theater; Digital Media; Dance.

ACM Classification Keywords:

J.5. Arts and Humanities: Miscellaneous


The paper focuses on the use of digital media for plays in theatres and a set of requirements and four interactions are introduced to make audience interact in theatrical play actively with the use of gestural interfaces.

Main Contents:

By joining the disciplines of Art with technology, the plays can be showed more efficiently and meaningfully than before like the use of sounds, recorded videos, live projection to improve the scenery of the play and participation of audience in the act, all at the same time can blur the linearity of a play and bring new interaction challenges. The paper focuses on narrative performances of audience interactions with the play. After seven times play of “Parcival XX-XI” drama and 30 audience interviews of their interaction experiments, many of new challenges and interaction designs got introduced that the involvement of audience in the play is due to fun, frustration, fear and schadenfreude. At the same time four “interaction-enabling” principles that are required for audience’s in-play interaction, are introduced as audience interest in the play, interest in involvement of the play, performing interaction be valuable experience for him or her and last valuable experience be shared to all audience.

Parcival XX-XI is an artistic field research which audience, two media artists, one dramaturge, one choreographer, two light technicians, six dancers, other performers, have contributed and is performed seven times with many audiences ranging from 50 to 130. Play is done with very little stage design with video projection and Nintendo Wii-mote control used for interaction. The non-linear play has two scenarios in which audience are allowed to take part using the remote control to interact with virtual avatars on stage, mean time dancers also react according to audience actions, there is always “Wii fairy” to help audience for technical issues. If the Parcival XX-XI cannot show the dramatic composition image then it is failed and piece is remained un-finished, but luckily until now no play is remained un-finished.

The scenarios are unsolvable problems, like four audience stand in front of four other naked dancers and they are asked to dress or undress them only with three digital projected dresses by using two gestures (steal, hold) dancers wear, so as a result one of the dancer always remain naked. This is to let the audience to realize that there is no actual solution, therefor; individual solutions are required for problem solving and face the effect of their action on dancers and play.

Thirty audiences aged between 24 and 63 from which 20 men and 10 women were interviewed and each interview took 5 to 20 minutes and three main questions were asked. “Which aspects especially caught your eye? How did you perceive the use of digital media? How would you rate the usage of Wii-mote controllers?”.


A: Audience agreement or rejection of participation is due to Fear, fun, frustration schadenfreude.

B:The audience often experienced the participation as disruption of the play  because

1: Written language was used in participatory scenario.

2:  The scenarios occur at an inappropriate point of time of play.

3: Only two gestures for participators.

4: The scenarios required a shift from passive spectator to an active role on stage.

Based on the results four interaction-enabling criteria are introduced for theatrical plays, and these criteria are also applicable for theatrical performance that require interaction and employ gestural interaction. The criteria are to prevent the drama from an unfinished state.

1: The audience should be interested to get involved with the work.

2: An interested audience should be able to do the interaction.

3: Performing the interaction should be a valuable experience for the interacting person. :

4: The valuable experience should not only be reserved for the person interacting with it, but should be shared with everyone else around.

Getting one person involved in an interactive task is not an easy work, first because in many occasions the person may feel baffled, ashamed, insecure, unfamiliar and even afraid of technologies used.. Parcival XX-XI is introduced as a participatory play to the audience, so that they expect more and volunteer themselves to contribute in. second embarrassing situation for participants should be avoid by asking many participants at one time to come on the stage, third the play should make the audience realize that play is interactive and desirable, by projecting a text on stage or playing a sound, in this play Wii Fairy supported audience with the play.

Ability is the second requirement where the audience should be able to use the tools, since every person varies in age, profession and other characteristics, Nintendo Wiimote was chosen because that could transfer relevant message, the device were thought to audience before the play.

Participants should achieve valuable experience, they must see the reaction quick and correctly but due to some technical problems of Nentendo Wiimote and projection delay, this was somehow not understandable for them.

The play should not only be valuable experience for participants but also for viewers, any interaction made on stage play must have dramaturgical impact on the drama, therefor pre-performance was designed to ensure that participants understand the usage of controllers and effects they can make on a play.

Ideas for costume evaluation: ?

We should keep in mind about the technologies being used inside the costume that the performer should not feel fear, shy or embarrassed and at the same time it should respond to the perfumers expectation.

Experience Design Theatre: Exploring the Role of Live Theatre in Scaffolding Design Dialogues

Original: Vines, J., Denman-Cleaver, T., Dunphy, P., Wright, P. & Olivier, P. (2014). Experience Design Theatre: Exploring the Role of Live Theatre in Scaffolding Design Dialogues. CHI ’14 Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Pages 683-692.

Authors: John Vines, Tess Denman-Cleaver, Paul Dunphy, Peter Wright & Patrick Olivier

Keywords: Scaffolding, experience-centered design, theatre, care, older people, intergenerational

Summary: Experience Design Theatre with several diverse groups of people, different age, in the early beginnings of a design using experience-centered designs. In EDT small groups of participants are formed, which engage in a theater piece about the design of product, and then to share their concerns and aspirations with domain experts. Theatre gaining more and more importance in HCI.

Main Contents: For the development of a design different age groups are formed. Then the product, through experience-centered-design, role-play and non-scripted-live-theatre, evaluate. By the live theatre and improvisation, scenes can be changed individually, by sudden dynamics of the group to integrate the experiences of the people in a unfinished piece.

Exploring the Role of Live Theatre in Scaffolding Design Dialogues

From the original paper: Experience Design Theatre: Exploring the Role of Live Theatre in Scaffolding Design Dialogues

In the Experience Design Theatre process all workshops and performances will be recorded to experience to conclude. It is improvised, with few rules and after the piece a new piece is then shaped it. There are 5 phases:

  • Phase 1: Definition of situations and starting scenes
    The responsible of the theatre will be trained how the design should look like and must be paid to what, then the people are selected according to various criteria.
  • Phase 2: Rehearsal workshops
    The purpose of the five workshops was to show some scenes and ask participants do help us redirect them to convey their own experiences of care.
  • Phase 3: Performance development
    Extracts of re-directed scenes and any missed details of contrasting view where reworked into a number of more developed episodes.
  • Phase 4: Voice Validation Workshop
    At the end of the performance participants were invited to voice their views on the performance.
  • Phase 5: Public Voice Workshop
    This is a public performance. The primary aim of this performance was to communicate to the domain-experts what the user experience of the design might be like. And generate discussion about the design implications.

“Live theatre provides a responsive space for sharing experiences between participants, designers and research teams and iteratively prototyping future experiences.”

Ideas for costume evaluation: The paper does not contain a lot of useful information that we can use in the final phase of the costume. In this excerpt, it was a matter that older people work with younger and reviews this design. In our project, it would be the actor and our group.

Disembodied Performance

Original: Disembodied Performance / MIT Laboratory / CHI 2009, Boston MA USA

Authors:  Peter A. Torpey , Elena N. Jessop

Keywords:  Disembodied Performance, theater, visualization, physiological sensors


Disembodied Performance by Peter A. Torpey and Elena N. Jessop informs about a prospective way of theater and acting. Including Sensor Systems, Robots and the technology of mapping Torpey, Jessop and the Director Tod Machover developed the opera Death and the Powers. The  main character Simon Powers (or the actor James Maddalena)  can control parts of the stage by his behavior shown as light, sound, movements and other projected images. This kind of performance will be part of the Future of Theaters.

Main Contents:

The Paper „Disembodied Performance“ explains a new way of staging and performance. Using the example of Tod Machover’s Opera Death and the Powers is shown how futuristic theater can look like. In combination with sensor technologies and mapping the actor is in an absolut new situation. Off-stage he is acting and and gesturing in connection with Distance- , Pressure- , Sound- and other sensors. So his role is transfered by the technic of mapping and tracking. In case of Simon Powers, the main character of Death and Powers, the character is translated into the walls and robots on the stage. Part is that Powers dies at the beginning of the story and his Personality is going to be live into the robots. Here becomes a visual language and the actor keeps contact with the other characters. Light, Sound, robots and projecting images expresses the mood of the actor and visualize this on stage.

The Performance contains the following points: Performance Data, Affect Space and On-stage representation. Disembodied Performance adapts ideas from affective psychology, cognitive science, and the theatrical tradition to create a structure for thinking about the translation of stage presence. Fact is that this system or this kind of presence on the stage opens the door to acting and allows actors to be virtual. So, a new way of storytelling develops.


The Implications of Improvisational Acting and Role- Playing on Design Methodologies


Medler, B. Magerko, B. (2010). The Implications of Improvisational Acting and Role- Playing on Design Methodologies. CHI 2010: Dance, Dust, and Drama: Designing Design, p. 483-492


Ben Medler, Brian Magerko;

Georgia Institute of Technology, 686 Cherty St, Atlanta, GA 30332


Improvisation, Role-playing, Design Methodologies, Performance, Theatre
Summary: The authors of this paper are making an effort to define and differentiate Improvisational Theater and Role- Playing as design tools and methods that support certain goal achievement such as:building self- confindence, creating new ideas, increasing group focus, informing of user´s needs, evaluating products and design ideas.

Main Contents: 

Here you can write a little bit more about the core information of the paper. E.g. definition or description of specific terms, or list design guidelines & explain them shortly, or a give more detailed information about the technologies used, or decribe which evaluation methods have been applied … You can add pictures with references. But don’t write to much, not everything is important for us. Keep in mind to just give the essence here in 250 to 300 words.

Performance techniques to enhance the design process – Definitions

– in jazz, theatre, organizational science, management, etc.
– unscripted performance
– flexible, original, error prone
– happens in real time
– major factors: group coherence, novelty, speed of execution and lack of planning
– not completely prescribed in terms of functional and/or content constraints

–> to break out of normal or common ways of thinking
–> a form of brainstorming
–> to create novel, interesting experience for an audience
–> to create mental models: cognitive consensus (Improvisers will predict, or infer, where other improvisers are heading in the story)
–> discovering what is hidden within a scene
–> building character/ relationships during performance
–> work collectively; as a cohesive group

=> is best acted out by trained improvisers; it requires little constrains and will help designers to obtain innovative, novel ideas. The outcome is not predictable which helps on getting new ideas that were not thought of before.

Role- Playing:
– for entertainment, training, psychological treatment
– interaction of players in virtual spaces/ imaginary world
– to become another person/ take on a character role in a constructed scene
– allows for the “infinite manipulation of time and space”
– not for an audience
– lead by Game Master/ leader – as director and facilitator (rules are followed and to move the story along)

–> view from another person´s perspective
–> creates realism, simulates a ‘real life’ episode or experience – under controlled conditions
–> leader: maintain group focus, influences direction and outcome

=> used best by designers and testers to focus on specific areas in the further developed design process. It will obtain more practical, efficient designs and insights – not so much innovation, because of the tight constrains.

A combination of these two techniques is the ‘Wizard of Oz’ method:
This technique allows designers to have control over user testing while still giving participants the freedom to improvise their actions:
– participants don´t know that someone is guiding their experience
– users are set in low-fidelity, mixed-reality environment with freedom to perform “daily routines
– designers trigger different events or constrain the user in different ways in real-time .


Ideas for costume evaluation:

Improvisation and Role- Playing are methods suitable for this project. Unfortunatley at the first design acting workshop we participated, our ideas/ storytelling were not developed enough to work with. Improvisation would have been a good design tool to create story and costume ideas. Although trained actors are necessary to achieve useable results.
Bodystorming, is also mentioned in the paper – we tried that with good results: Group coherence towards our costume ideas were achieved.


Designing For Movement: Evaluating Computational models using LMA Effort Qualities

Original: Maranan,D.,  Alaoui, S.,  Schiphorst, T., Pasquier, P., Subyen,P., Bartram, L. (2014). Designing For Movement: Evaluating Computational Models using LMA Effort Qualities. CHI 2014, One of a CHInd, Toronto, ON, Canada p.991-1000

Authors: Diego Silang Maranan, Sarah Fdili Alaoui, Thecla Schiphorst, Philippe Pasquier,Pattarawut Subyen, Lyn Bartram

Keywords: Movement recognition; Movement analysis; Laban Effort
analysis; Movement analysis; Movement-based interaction.

Summary: In the paper a new framework for recognizing Laban Effort qualities in real-time is explained. It uses a five degree of freedom single accelerometer input stream, Machine Learning mechanisms and Laban Movement Analysis to detect and classify movement quality.

Main Contents:  The paper describes a system called EffortDetect which is able to detect Laban Effort qualities in real-time. In contrast to existing approaches of Effort recognition, which uses position data from movement capturing systems, EffortDetect works with a single 5-DOF accelerometer (X, Y, Z, Pinch, Roll) input stream to determine qualifiers for the movement.

EffortDetect uses Machine Learning mechanisms to classify movements. Therefore, a supervised learning scheme is applied.  In the training phase a professional Laban Movement Analyst recorded some exact Basic Effort Actions (BEAs) with the accelerometer attached to his wrist. The gathered data is then used to train the classifier. In the performance phase other (professional) dancers execute the same BEAs (under supervision of the expert) and EffortDetect computes classifiers for the BEAs and outputs the most likely BEA based on the trained data in real-time.

After the first tests some additional mainly mathematical improvements for weighting different BEA profiles were conducted.

EffortDetect has been successfully used in at least two real dance performances.

The eight BEAs:














Indirect (flexible)



















Sudden – Sustained




Thrust (punch)



Strong – Light




Direct – Indirect




Ideas for costume evaluation: EffortDetect needed mainly quantitative data for the first evaluations, which is not really helpful for us. But in my opinion it is worth mentioning that they developed a (in their opinion) finish prototype before evaluating with real actors/dancers. Because of time struggle we have now the problem that we have to test pre-alpha versions of our prototype which could lead to meaningless results. I think the evaluation should take place after we decide that the prototypes are ready for testing. The other way around (the prototypes have to be finished when the evaluation starts) is inappropriate.

Interactive Theatre Experience in Embodied + Wearable Mixed Reality Space

Original: Cheok, A., Weihua, W., Yang, X., Prince, S., Wan, F., Billinghurst, M. & Kato, H. (2002). Interactive Theatre Experience in Embodied + Wearable Mixed Reality Space. ISMAR ’02 Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, p. 59-317.

Authors: Adrian David Cheok, Wang Weihua, Xubo Yang, Simon Prince, Fong Siew Wan,Mark Billinghurst, Hirokazu Kato

Keywords: Game, Virtual Theater, Wearable Computing

Summary: In the paper it comes through interactive applications, to encourage more users to go back to the theater. In addition, the paper describes how to integrate them into the play, users with different technical progress.

Main Contents: A technique in which Mixed Reality Space is the actors and props of digital objects represented are seamlessly located in the physical space.

There are 3 different research approaches: ubiquitous computing (deals with computing and activities in environment), tangible Interaction (deals with the physical world and physical objects) and social computing (analyze interaction and social conduct).

The result of the paper project will be a unique theater which connects the various interactions with each other. (human-to-human, human-to-physical, world and human-to-virtual-world). Exactly the same thing we want to achieve with our project.

Another technique is a small game that is intended to encourage the spectator to learn playfully over a play. The visitor must run around a particular area (for example, a Historic Game Tate) and can gather information about the play and the author. This is done with a portable computer, which is equipped with GPS, and a digital compass. However, no thoughts have been made about how the wearable computer looks like.

"Wearable Computer System (Source: AD Cheok et al, 2002)"
“Wearable Computer System (Source: AD Cheok et al, 2002)”

What does the paper at an actor and what we want in our project?
Live 3D Actors are used to the gestures, body language and movement represent as realistic as possible. For this purpose, a system was developed which represents a live 3D actors in the mixed reality environment.

“Live human actor´s (Source: AD Cheok et al, 2002)”
“Live human actor´s (Source: AD Cheok et al, 2002)”

Longer there is already the 2D representation, but which has the disadvantage that can be detected no precise gestures and movements, thereby the audience does not identify with the actor. Therefore, the 3D representation is always evolving.

Here the actor is thus defined on the basis of his gestures and movements. In addition, the actor is only virtually represented in a digital world. The costume puts into the background white relationship is not mentioned. Moreover, the so called actors are just normal users and not trained stage actor.

Just by the costume we identify in our project but the actor relationship to the white spectacle ends character. With us, the gestures and the movement is not the focus. However, it was also observed when designing the costume. Among other things, in the octopus we have, among other thoughts about how we made moves an octopus when he is aggressive to the electrical control to adjust this.

What does the paper at a theater and what we want in our project?
Interactive theater is a new kind of theater, which is caused by the advancement of technology. In addition, it is possible that the audience is a part of the game and thus is right there.

It is the spectator present a novel theatrical experience.

We understand, however, under theater, classical drama on the stage, with actors as trained professionals, costumes and props. Analog integrated interactive elements in it, with us in the project are the costumes. We want to achieve with our E-Textiles that the viewer gets a new theater experience. However, with us not always reached the spectator right there because he can identify with the technique does not always.

Ideas for costume evaluation: When we evaluate our costume we must respect that the figure can do in the play other gesticular as other normal do.

Temporal Integration of Interactive Technology in Dance: Creative Process Impacts


Latulipe, Celine;  Wilson, David; Gonzalez, Berto; Huskey, Sybil; Word, Melissa, (2011), Temporal Integration of Interactive Technology in Dance: Creative Process Impacts, C&C ’11 Proceedings of the 8th ACM conference on Creativity and cognition, Pages 107-116


Interdisciplinary integration, arts, creativity, dance, temporal effects

ACM Classification Keywords:

J.5 Computer Applications: Arts and Humanitiy – Performing Arts


The paper deals with time dependent integrations of technical features in artistic projects. Common problems are described that might occur during such interdisciplinary projects. The main focus is still on dance projects.

Main Contents:

Situated effects and technologies get included very soon, because they are automatically there. But their use often starts when the piece is almost ready for the stage. If the technological properties/devices are known, performances and costumes can easily be build around it. Parallel development teams in different departments demand a higher level of cooperation between the teams. In case of failures on the technical site, there should be a clear decision on how or if the performance should go on. It is also a good practice to incorporate the tech stuff as soon as possible so it can be used during rehearsals. That way you might get valuable insights/ideas. If the way the technology is used changes overtime it can heavily affect the final performance. So it is mandatory to update all team members that modifications are needed. Even the development of accompanying props greatly profits from early usable technology.

Ideas for costume evaluation: ?

Use the Article’s Title here

Original: Lastname1, 1.*, Lastname2, 2.* & Lastname3, 3.* (year). Title comes here in its full length. Write here italic the Conference Proceedings in which it has been published, p. XXX-XXX.

* Write here only the first letter of the first name!

Authors: Firstname1 Lastname1, Firstname2 Lastname2, Firstname3 Lastname3

Keywords: List here 3 to 5 keywords

Summary: Here comes the abstract. But do not copy & paste it from the article – write down the summary in your own words. Please no more than 3 to 5 sentences.

Main Contents: Here you can write a little bit more about the core information of the paper. E.g. definition or description of specific terms, or list design guidelines & explain them shortly, or a give more detailed information about the technologies used, or decribe which evaluation methods have been applied … You can add pictures with references. But don’t write to much, not everything is important for us. Keep in mind to just give the essence here in 250 to 300 words.

Ideas for costume evaluation: Please mention finally in 2 or 3 sentences how this paper could inspire our own costume evaluation. What shall we adopt? Or is something missing, you would like to introduce in our study?