/// Using this variable to decide whether to draw all the stuff
boolean debug = true;

// A path object (series of connected points)
Path path;

// vehicle array
ArrayList<Vehicle> vehicles;

void setup() {
  size(640, 360);
  // Call a function to generate new Path object
  newPath();
  vehicles = new ArrayList<Vehicle>();
  for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
    vehicles.add(new Vehicle(new PVector(mouseX, mouseY), 2, 0.04));
  }
}

void draw() {
  background(255);
  // Display the path
  path.display();

  // The boids follow the path
   for (int i= vehicles.size()-1; i >= 0; i--) {
     Vehicle v = vehicles.get(i);
     v.follow(path);
    // Call the generic run method (update, borders, display, etc.)
     v.run();
     if (v.position.x > width){vehicles.remove(i);}
    // Instructions
    fill(0);
    text("Hit space bar to toggle debugging lines.\nClick the mouse to generate a new path.", 10, height-30);
  }
}
void newPath() {
  // A path is a series of connected points
  // A more sophisticated path might be a curve
  path = new Path();
  path.addPoint(-20, height/2);
  path.addPoint(random(0, width/2), random(0, height));
  path.addPoint(random(width/2, width), random(0, height));
  path.addPoint(width+20, height/2);
}

public void keyPressed() {
  if (key == ' ') {
    debug = !debug;
  }
  if (key == 'p') {
    newPath();
  }
}

void mousePressed() {
  vehicles.add(new Vehicle(new PVector(mouseX, mouseY), 2, 0.04));
}



/class Path {

  // A Path is an arraylist of points (PVector objects)
  ArrayList<PVector> points;
  // A path has a radius, i.e how far is it ok for the boid to wander off
  float radius;

  Path() {
    // Arbitrary radius of 20
    radius = 20;
    points = new ArrayList<PVector>();
  }

  // Add a point to the path
  void addPoint(float x, float y) {
    PVector point = new PVector(x, y);
    points.add(point);
  }
  
  PVector getStart() {
     return points.get(0);
  }

  PVector getEnd() {
     return points.get(points.size()-1);
  }


  // Draw the path
  void display() {
    // Draw thick line for radius
    stroke(175);
    strokeWeight(radius*2);
    noFill();
    beginShape();
    for (PVector v : points) {
      vertex(v.x, v.y);
    }
    endShape();
    // Draw thin line for center of path
    stroke(0);
    strokeWeight(1);
    noFill();
    beginShape();
    for (PVector v : points) {
      vertex(v.x, v.y);
    }
    endShape();
  }
}

class Vehicle {

  // All the usual stuff
  PVector position;
  PVector velocity;
  PVector acceleration;
  float r;
  float maxforce;    // Maximum steering force
  float maxspeed;    // Maximum speed

    // Constructor initialize all values
  Vehicle( PVector l, float ms, float mf) {
    position = l.get();
    r = 4.0;
    maxspeed = ms;
    maxforce = mf;
    acceleration = new PVector(0, 0);
    velocity = new PVector(maxspeed, 0);
  }

  // Main "run" function
  void run() {
    update();
    display();
  }


  // This function implements Craig Reynolds' path following algorithm
  // http://www.red3d.com/cwr/steer/PathFollow.html
  void follow(Path p) {

    // Predict position 50 (arbitrary choice) frames ahead
    // This could be based on speed 
    PVector predict = velocity.get();
    predict.normalize();
    predict.mult(50);
    PVector predictpos = PVector.add(position, predict);

    // Now we must find the normal to the path from the predicted position
    // We look at the normal for each line segment and pick out the closest one

    PVector normal = null;
    PVector target = null;
    float worldRecord = 1000000;  // Start with a very high record distance that can easily be beaten

    // Loop through all points of the path
    for (int i = 0; i < p.points.size()-1; i++) {

      // Look at a line segment
      PVector a = p.points.get(i);
      PVector b = p.points.get(i+1);

      // Get the normal point to that line
      PVector normalPoint = getNormalPoint(predictpos, a, b);
      // This only works because we know our path goes from left to right
      // We could have a more sophisticated test to tell if the point is in the line segment or not
      if (normalPoint.x < a.x || normalPoint.x > b.x) {
        // This is something of a hacky solution, but if it's not within the line segment
        // consider the normal to just be the end of the line segment (point b)
        normalPoint = b.get();
      }

      // How far away are we from the path?
      float distance = PVector.dist(predictpos, normalPoint);
      // Did we beat the record and find the closest line segment?
      if (distance < worldRecord) {
        worldRecord = distance;
        // If so the target we want to steer towards is the normal
        normal = normalPoint;

        // Look at the direction of the line segment so we can seek a little bit ahead of the normal
        PVector dir = PVector.sub(b, a);
        dir.normalize();
        // This is an oversimplification
        // Should be based on distance to path & velocity
        dir.mult(10);
        target = normalPoint.get();
        target.add(dir);
      }
    }

    // Only if the distance is greater than the path's radius do we bother to steer
    if (worldRecord > p.radius) {
      seek(target);
    }


    // Draw the debugging stuff
    if (debug) {
      // Draw predicted future position
      stroke(0);
      fill(0);
      line(position.x, position.y, predictpos.x, predictpos.y);
      ellipse(predictpos.x, predictpos.y, 4, 4);

      // Draw normal position
      stroke(0);
      fill(0);
      ellipse(normal.x, normal.y, 4, 4);
      // Draw actual target (red if steering towards it)
      line(predictpos.x, predictpos.y, normal.x, normal.y);
      if (worldRecord > p.radius) fill(255, 0, 0);
      noStroke();
      ellipse(target.x, target.y, 8, 8);
    }
  }


  // A function to get the normal point from a point (p) to a line segment (a-b)
  // This function could be optimized to make fewer new Vector objects
  PVector getNormalPoint(PVector p, PVector a, PVector b) {
    // Vector from a to p
    PVector ap = PVector.sub(p, a);
    // Vector from a to b
    PVector ab = PVector.sub(b, a);
    ab.normalize(); // Normalize the line
    // Project vector "diff" onto line by using the dot product
    ab.mult(ap.dot(ab));
    PVector normalPoint = PVector.add(a, ab);
    return normalPoint;
  }


  // Method to update position
  void update() {
    // Update velocity
    velocity.add(acceleration);
    // Limit speed
    velocity.limit(maxspeed);
    position.add(velocity);
    // Reset accelertion to 0 each cycle
    acceleration.mult(0);
  }

  void applyForce(PVector force) {
    // We could add mass here if we want A = F / M
    acceleration.add(force);
  }


  // A method that calculates and applies a steering force towards a target
  // STEER = DESIRED MINUS VELOCITY
  void seek(PVector target) {
    PVector desired = PVector.sub(target, position);  // A vector pointing from the position to the target

    // If the magnitude of desired equals 0, skip out of here
    // (We could optimize this to check if x and y are 0 to avoid mag() square root
    if (desired.mag() == 0) return;

    // Normalize desired and scale to maximum speed
    desired.normalize();
    desired.mult(maxspeed);
    // Steering = Desired minus Velocity
    PVector steer = PVector.sub(desired, velocity);
    steer.limit(maxforce);  // Limit to maximum steering force

      applyForce(steer);
  }

  void display() {
    // Draw a triangle rotated in the direction of velocity
    float theta = velocity.heading2D() + radians(90);
    fill(175);
    stroke(0);
    pushMatrix();
    translate(position.x, position.y);
    rotate(theta);
    beginShape(PConstants.TRIANGLES);
    vertex(0, -r*2);
    vertex(-r, r*2);
    vertex(r, r*2);
    endShape();
    popMatrix();
  }
}