carbon based semiconductors (Graphite, carbon and other stuff)

"The most used semiconductor material, Si, which serves so well in electronics, happens to have rather poor properties when it comes to biological environments. In salty solutions and especially with applied potentials Si becomes easily corroded. This opens the stage for new and seemingly exotic materials: carbon based semiconductors. Carbon is one of the main elements in organic chemistry, which concerns materials ranging from plastic foils to biological systems like enzymes or even cells." (

"Graphene is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, honey-comb lattice" (wikipedia)

"Graphite is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions." (wikipedia)

Bacteria battery

"A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature."(wikipedia)

"Most MFCs contain a membrane to separate the compartments of the anode (where oxidation takes place) and the cathode (where reduction takes place). The electrons produced during oxidation are transferred directly to an electrode or, to a redox mediator species. The electron flux is moved to the cathode."(wikipedia) (RIXC/Rasa and Raitis Smits)

Earth computer

"Soil-based microbial fuel cells adhere to the basic MFC principles, whereby soil acts as the nutrient-rich anodic media, the inoculum and the proton exchange membrane (PEM). The anode is placed at a particular depth within the soil, while the cathode rests on top the soil and is exposed to air."(wikipedia)

"The earth computer proposes the bootstrapping of a long-term, visible computational device self-constructed solely from the earth, and embedded within the earth as a critical monument to human technology. The total environment (geophysical, biological, electro-chemical) itself encodes and manipulates active, new computational-crystalline structures which compute, impact on and re-code this environment within a complex feedback system." (

Martin Howse: earth computer simulation: ceramics, glass, canal mud, silver nitrate, recovered copper, zinc, ferrite, copper antenna

Sonification of bacteria, slime molds, plants and other interesting things

Non-Human Rhythms 2 with Physarum polycephalum Leslie Garcia and Paloma Lopez (Interspecifics)

Paper available upon request.

Instructions for a microbial fuel cell

Further readings