11. Internationales Bauhaus-Kolloqium Weimar 2009 - Workshops

Workshop-Leiter / Workshop Tutors

M. Christine Boyer Princeton University
Jane Rendell The Bartlett School of Architecture
Richard Shusterman Florida Atlantic University
Michael Speaks University of Kentucky
Karin Wilhelm TU Braunschweig

Im Rahmen der Workshops, die von ausgesuchten Wissenschaftlern moderiert werden, werden in Kurzvorträgen von jeweils 20 minuten ca. sechs junge KollegInnen ihre Thesen zur Diskussion stellen, gefolgt von einer Diskussion der Runde.

 

The Bauhaus-Colloquium wishes to create a lively debate between distinguished Experts and emerging scholars.

The Workshops consist of six peer-reviewed paper presentations of 20 minutes each, by young scholars and Ph.D. candidates , followed by a moderated discussion.

 

Sabine Ammon, TU Berlin

Sabine Ammon studierte an der Technischen Universität Berlin Architektur und Philosophie. Studien- und Forschungsaufenthalte führten sie an die University of London und die Harvard University. Darüber hinaus war sie freiberuflich in der Gebäudeplanung tätig. Ihre Dissertation „Wissen verstehen. Perspektiven einer dynamischen Theorie der Erkenntnis" entwickelt eine Theorie des Wissens auf zeichenphilosophischen Grundlagen. In einem aktuellen Forschungsvorhaben untersucht sie Entwurfsprozesse in der Architektur an der Technischen Universität Berlin.

Wie implizites Bauwissen explizit wird - Das Beispiel Architekturdarstellung

Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, inwieweit ein implizites, praktisches Bauwissen durch Architekturdarstellungen in ein explizites, in etablierten Notationssystemen gefasstes Wissen überführt kann und wo die Grenzen eines derartigen Vorgehens liegen.

Bis heute liegt ein Großteil des Wissens der Architektur als implizites Wissen vor. Jahrhundertelang wurde in der Architektur das Wissen der Techniker und Baumeister vorwiegend als praktisches und implizites Wissen tradiert. Im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert setzt mit der beginnenden Verwissenschaftlichung des Bauwesens und einer Industrialisierung der Bautechniken eine zunehmende notationale Vermittlung dieses Wissens in Form von Architekturzeichnungen und Architekturplänen ein, die mit der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert durch den Einsatz rechnergestützter Verfahren eine neue Qualität gewonnen hat.

Architekturdarstellungen nehmen in Planungs- und Bauprozessen eine wichtige Stellung ein. In Form von Zeichnungen und Plänen geben sie einen Eindruck des zu realisierenden Bauwerkes wieder. Sie dienen den Planenden als Entwicklungsinstrument ihrer Entwurfsideen, den Auftraggebern als Überprüfung ihrer Vorstellungen und den Baupraktikern als Anleitung für die Ausführung, in der Bestandsaufnahme dienen sie als Grundlage der Dokumentation und Basis weiterer Planungen.

Der Beitrag untersucht mit Hilfe exemplarischer Beispiele von Architekturdarstellungen, wie das Praxiswissen des Bauwesens mit Hilfe von Notationssystemen expliziert wird. Von besonderen Interesse ist hierbei die Frage, welches Wissen in den Darstellungen aufgezeichnet sowie vermittelt wird und mit welchem Wissen dies nicht gelingt. Zugleich soll gefragt, auf welche Weise dies geschieht. Diese systematischen Fragen sollen nicht zuletzt vor dem Hintergrund einer rasanten Entwicklung der Architekturdarstellung der letzten zwei Jahrzehnte geprüft werden. Sie ist geprägt von einem zunehmenden Einsatz computergestützter Verfahren, verbunden mit der zeitlichen Beschleunigung der Bauprozesse, einer erhöhten Komplexität der Arbeitsprozesse und der Vernetzung der beteiligten Akteure sowie einer zunehmende Spezialisierung und Internationalisierung.

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Ingrid Böck, TU Graz

Studium der Architektur an der Technischen Universität Wien. Von 2001 bis 2002 Lehrbeauftragte am Institut für künstlerische Gestaltung der TU Wien. Im Zeitraum 1997-2002 Wettbewerbe, Planungen und Realisationen in den Architekturbüros „the unit" und „ckp", 2002-2007 „limit architects", Wien. Seit 2008 querkraft architekten wien.

Dissertationsprojekt seit 2004: Design Strategies: Case Study of Six Projects of Rem Koohaas/OMA. Seit 2008 wissenschaftliche Assistentin am Institut für Architekturtheorie, Kunst- und Kulturwissenschaften der TU Graz.

Forschungsschwerpunkte: Architekturtheorie, Gegenwartsarchitektur, Entwurfsmethoden, Architectural Research/Design Studies, Wahrnehmung und Architektur.

Atmosphere and Immersion: Physiological Architecture as Sensitive Territory

Architecture today is increasingly evolving towards the invisible. Means of combinatory design for layering, folding, programmed randomness of algorithms enables both the visual representation and realization of hybrid architectural visions. Though, how do these innovations effect, shape and interact with the perception and experience of space? Focusing on the atmospheric, the mood, and the effect of presence as architecture’s unique features, I will trace the idea of projective qualities and new situational conditions. For the contingent shapes comprise performative properties and a theatrical, pictorial-spatial sequencing of architecture. They represent a new species of an "exceptionally perceptive and adaptive organism" that accommodates all programmatic elements within a single, diagrammatic metastructure.

In addition, there is a consciousness of the synaesthetic immersions such as sound, lighting, humidity, air conditioning within a closed, controlled, artificial environment. This kind of physiological architecture is an active, sensitive territory in the process of perception, by addressing multiple modes of awareness of the senses, in the retina, by breathing, the enforcement of orientation, views, atmosphere.

However, besides the physical, yet invisible, elusive, microscopic dimensions of space, it seems that the most significant and vital issue of architectural space is the social dimension, embodied in the interference of the users. With the architecture of Philippe Rahm, Francois Roche, Diller&Scofidio, and OMA, I will discuss practices that conceptually address atmospheric immersion, mood and the effect of presence. These projects involve a psychogeography of space, expanding the event structure as a kind of constructivist social condenser for generating new forms of presence and social interaction. The atmospheric qualities and the emotional effects they produce depend on an almost physiological response which can be elicited in different ways. Thus, independent of the architectural means applied, the body remains a Nullpunkt – to use Husserl’s term – a dynamic and malleable center, to be sure, but a foundation nonetheless for the constitution of space as atmosphere.

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Joshua Bolchover/ John Lin, Chinese University of Hong Kong/ Hong Kong University

Joshua Bolchover is an urban researcher, academic and architect. He is currently a Professional Consultant at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He recently exhibited "Utopia Now: Opening the Closed Area", a research project on the Hong Kong and Shenzhen border at the Venice Biennale 2008. Joshua was a local curator for the Manchester-Liverpool section of Shrinking Cities between 2003-5. He has collaborated with Raoul Bunschoten, Chora researching strategic urban projects and has worked with Diller+Scofidio in New York. Joshua has previously taught architecture at London Metropolitan University, Cambridge University and the Architectural Association.

John Lin is an architect based in Hong Kong and is a graduate of The Cooper Union in New York City.  His experimental constructions have been published in FRAME magazine (2003) and exhibited in the Kolonihaven (Architecture Park) at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Copenhagen (2004) and at the Venice Biennale (2008). His current projects include the design of several school buildings in China. Located in rural areas of Guizhou and Guangdong they integrate local and traditional practices with contemporary technologies. The projects coordinate between Mainland and Hong Kong Universities, The Ministry of Construction, The Education Bureau, and local village governments along with N.G.O.’s and charity organizations in Hong Kong. He has taught at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and is currently an Assistant Professor at the University of Hong Kong.

Closing the World's Factory: the future of the Pearl River Delta during global recession

After over twenty years of continued growth that created instant new cities with populations greater than some of the largest cities in the Western world, the economic hot spots of China’s Pearl River Delta are currently facing the impact of global recession. Already in the last two months it is estimated that nationwide 10 million workers have been made redundant, 670,000 small firms have closed and within Guangdong Province alone 2 million workers have lost their jobs as a result of 4,800 toy factories closing. The sheer scale of numbers is unprecedented. The effect of entire populations of migrant workers leaving the city to return to their rural homes is unknown. In cities such as Dongguan where the migrant labour force is estimated to make up 75% of the total population of 6 million, the impact of what could be an almost instant evacuation is unparalleled in history.

From their inception in 1978 the cities of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in Southern China have exemplified the excesses of late-capitalism in built form. The mix of political hegemony and economic freedom brought about by Deng Xiaoping’s policy reforms created the conditions for unprecedented urbanization directly linked to the globalisation of markets. As the World’s Factory, the Pearl River Delta exposed the simultaneous horror and attraction attributable to the creation of instant cities with a floating itinerant population in excess of 147.35 million. Such unbridled urbanisation related to industrialisation has not been witnessed in equal intensity since the advent of the world’s first industrialized city: 19th Century Manchester.

The paper will explore how the PRD cities of Shenzhen and Dongguan exemplify the peaks and troughs of the market in built form, and how these cities are adaptable (or not), to economic change. We will compare the urbanisation of this form of 21st century industrialisation to previous centuries’ precedents as exemplified by 20th century Detroit and 19th century Manchester. The paper will examine the characteristics of Shenzhen and Dongguan at the cusp of inevitable change and how the global financial crisis is reflected as an urban crisis for China’s new industrial cities.

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Daniela Brasil, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Daniela Brasil is currently a PhD candidate at the professorship of Spatial Planning and Research at Architecture Faculty of the Bauhaus- Universität Weimar, where she has also been teaching since 2007. Her seminars foster bodily experiments and critical thinking on "city’s sensuality", where discussions on city marketing and affectivity are central. She was educated in architecture and urbanism in Brazil and Portugal and holds a Master of Fine Arts in Public Art and new artistic strategies. Idealizing and realizing artistic-oriented projects that intervene in relations between bodies and cities is her main concern since the mid-nineties; where she preferably works in transdisciplinary groups, as in "Lisbon Capital of Nothing: create, debate and intervene in public space, Marvila 2001". Daniela currently runs the project "Baustelle M10 > gallery for contemporary experiments" within a collective of artists and students in Weimar.

Sensual is Political

This paper wishes to put at stake not only the hypertrophy of the visual dimensions present in current assumptions of the concept of "city" (generic, global, in transition, etc.), but also to politicize the discussion of sense and sensuality. "Sensual relations are also social relations", (HOWES, 2003) and it is exactly in the intricate constituency of this interplay where "the city" forms itself.

Cities are made of groups and individuals, embodied in the specificity and diversity of their histories, memories and collective life experiences. However, the on-going spectacularization of public space, through the homogenizing forces of Empire, engenders a dictatorship of the city-scenery and the product-body. Marketing strategies tantalize urban life, bombarding it with images of sexy cities and sexy bodies, where the lived-daily-ordinary-bodies end up being commodified, excluded and/or anesthetized. Countering cities’ "modern technologies for desensitizing the human body" (SENNETT, 1994), sensual experiences will be highlighted as forms of subjectivation that potentially generate intensity and affect.

The role of art and its ability of "distributing the sensible" (RANCIÈRE, 2000) will be explored as a possible mode of action to empower people, fostering active political participation in the construction of public life.

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Nathalie Bredella, Berlin

Nathalie Bredella is a practicing architect in Berlin. She was educated at the TU Berlin and Cooper Union, New York. She received a PhD in Architectural Theory. She taught architectural design at the TU Berlin. Forthcoming is her book: Die Architektur des Zuschauens: imaginäre und reale Räume im Backstage-Film. The work is based on an interdisciplinary approach incorporating architecture, film theory and philosophy. Her interests in architectural practice focus on the relationship between spatial strategies, film and media on an urban and architectural scale.

The Significance of Atmosphere in the Aesthetic Experience: Technology and the Concept of the Body

In my paper I will explore the significance of atmosphere in the aesthetic experience by interpreting two interactive environments: Lars Spuybroek’s "Water Pavilion" and Diller Scofdio + Renfro’s "Blur Building." In both projects technology is used for different purposes and effects. In the "Water Pavilion," technology plays a significant role in immersing the viewer in the architectural environment. Special effects are created to make the viewer experience architecture as an extension of the body. The distinction between body and space and the experience of gravity are supposed to disappear. In the "Blur Building," however, the body is not seen as an extension of architecture but interacts with the environment by drawing attention to the dominance of vision within our spatial orientation. By blurring the view through a changing water mist, the viewer is encouraged to reflect on her bodily experience and to develop a new awareness of her body.

According to Gernot Böhme, atmosphere overcomes the separation between subject and object. We as perceivers are influenced by what we perceive, and this effect can only be understood by taking the perceiver and the perceived into account. Hence atmosphere differs from projection. It is the object, which influences us. We experience a room as depressing or as cheerful because of its features. Yet this room can only affect us because there is a distinction between the room and us. Hence Spuybroek’s attempt to immerse the viewer in an architectural environment and regard architecture as an extension of the body is problematic. I will argue, that the significance of atmosphere lies in the fact that it overcomes the separation between subject and object and that of sense and sensuality without completely leveling the differences between them. Hence the concept of atmosphere can be used critically.

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Ralph Brodrück, University of Technology Eindhoven

Ralph Brodruck studied architecture at the Technical University of Eindhoven and Jan van Eyck Academie in Maastricht. He currently teaches architecture and morpholgy at the Technical University of Eindhoven and the Academie voor Bouwkunst in Arnhem.

Sensory tectonics. The relationship between sense and sensuality.

Before we are fully conscious of the World, according to Merleau-Ponty, the World already has meaning for us as we have built up, from the very beginning, a bodily relation to it. This paper sets out to illustrate this concept of Merleau-Ponty by means of the work of Joseph Beuys and Herzog & the Meuron. It turns out that sensory perception, as the most intimate relationship between user and building, constitutes the very foundation for a private meaning in their architecture.

First of all this concept will be applied to the work of Beuys. The effect of the expressive elements and means Beuys deploys in his art is not referential but relates to itself. A common characteristic of the means he uses is that the expressive quality of the work is not it functionality, but begins with it materiality. A work of art by Beuys consists not so much of significant images or melodies but of elementary visual material and sound material. Through this, according to Theodora Vischer, neither the mechanically non-reflective, nor the analytically objectifying perception is able to grasp the quality of the materiality of Beuys work. Beuys puts elements out of different fields of sense in correlation by which they are no longer experienced as something incompatible, but through which concealed material properties become visible. The senses are in close contact with each other by being open to the structure of the object. In an artwork entitled ‘Schneefall’, I perceive, through the structure of slender tree trunks and the felt cloth covering them, the acoustic quality of snow.

In the architecture of Herzog & de Meuron one can recognize the same interest in the concealed qualities of the material, and the ability to reveal them. According to Herzog, once a material is taken out of its natural context the highest form of expression is reached. In the tectonics of Herzog & de Meurons architecture the same regulative principle is present as in the work of Beuys. Through the structure, the mutual relation of the constructional elements, concealed properties become revealed. The moment I perceive the apparently thin walls of the ´Sperrholzhaus’ as the surfaces of a sound box, as Merleau-Ponty puts it: ‘the senses intercommunicate by opening on to the structure of the thing’ and suddenly I perceive the acoustic quality of the building. This sensory perception, as the most private relation between me and the building, constitutes the basis for this architecture’s meaning to me.

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Tobias Danielmeier, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand

Tobias Danielmeier teaches design at the Otago Polytechnic as well as at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. He holds a Masters of Arts in Architecture from the Münster School of Architecture and is currently completing his PhD at the University of Otago. His research investigates the art, business and science of winery architecture and their interrelation with place and technology. Tobias Danielmeier’s practical experience includes projects for Reichardt Architekten, Essen, and Bolles+Wilson, Münster.

The Architecture of Post-Consumerism

The globalisation debate frequently accuses contemporary architecture practise of equalising spaces and it draws attention to the potential loss of regional distinction that may incur. This phenomenon has not only been identified within the field of architecture; disciplines like anthropology, cultural studies and human geography also identify a growing number of spaces that lack meaning. Attempts to conceptualise a ‘global architecture culture’ lead to the question whether architecture can at all be a single regional product without being vernacular. Throughout time and space architectural design was always dependent on both the skills of architects and empathies of patrons, but also on economical constraints.

So what has changed? How do we create place identities in a world that only recently discovered the decreasing significance of geographical indications? Bearing in mind that economical reasons are generally considered the main driver for globalisation processes, will consumers be the new decision-makers who determine the design of buildings?

This paper analyses recent developments in the wine industry and its architecture in order to investigate the creation of place identity. Wineries are in the process of adapting to a variety of new challenges from the changing micro and macro environments, through to changed consumer behaviour and pressure by a raising wine supply on the world market. For the industry, architecture is acknowledged to be instrumental in the negotiation process between tradition and innovation and its phenomenological display.

The proposed paper draws on findings of a research project on ‘The creation of identity through the construction of space’ and introduces a framework for the creation of values of place. Furthermore, the presentation explores the changed interdependences of place and technology and provides an outlook on how an emergent post-consumerism will change the way we design.

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Steffen de Rudder, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Steffen de Rudder, Dr.-Ing., ist Architekt und wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter an der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. Er lehrt städtebauliches Entwerfen und forscht zu Themen der Architektur- und Stadtbaugeschichte. 1996 Lehrbeauftragter am Kunsthistorischen Institut der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 1990 bis 2001 selbstständiger Architekt in Potsdam und Berlin (Neubau, Sanierung, Denkmalpflege). Veröffentlichungen zur Bauhaus-Rezeption, zur amerikanischen Architekturgeschichte der Moderne und zur Stadtentwicklung in Berlin und in Thüringen. 2007 erschien: „Der Architekt Hugh Stubbins. Amerikanische Moderne der Fünfziger Jahre in Berlin".

 

Wechselnde Zuschreibungen Moderne Architektur zwischen Amerika und Deutschland

Der größte Förderer der modernen Architektur war der größte Kapitalist. Nelson Rockefeller, der Sohn des legendären Öl-Magnaten John D. Rockefeller, sorgte fast im Alleingang für die Finanzierung der Architekturabteilung des Museum of Modern Art. Er bezahlte ihren ersten Kurator, Philip Johnson, und die große „International Style"-Ausstellung des Jahres 1932. Auch war er ein Förderer der modernen Kunst. Er verehrte das Werk Jackson Pollocks und verstand den abstrakten Expressionismus als „free enterprise painting".

Immer wieder wurde beklagt, dass bei der amerikanischen Adaption der europäischen Moderne und speziell des Bauhauses die sozialen Belange abgeschnitten, die politische Dimension ignoriert und die neue Architektur auf ihre formal-ästhetischen Werte reduziert worden sei. "A suitable veneer for the corporate activities of ‘enlightened’ capitalism", nannte Colin Rowe die amerikanisch transformierte Adaption der Moderne. Hat das Bauhaus in den USA seine Seele verloren, seinen sinngebenden Kern? In Weimar und Dessau das richtige Bauhaus, in Boston und Chicago das falsche?

Die Architektur der Moderne hat über die Jahrzehnte zahlreiche politische oder gar moralische Zuschreibungen erfahren, deren Vorzeichen immer wieder wechselten. Bei jeder nationalen oder ideologischen Einbindung handelt es sich um eine kulturelle Konstruktion, die sich mit der Materialität und physischen Präsenz eines Gebäudes letztlich nicht dauerhaft verbindet. Wie solche Zuweisungen entstehen, wie sie planvoll, nachdrücklich und zuweilen bis zur Lächerlichkeit betrieben werden, lässt sich am mehrfachen Transport der Moderne über den Atlantik ablesen und soll der Gegenstand dieses Beitrages sein.

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Luis Feduchi, TFH Berlin

Luis Feduchi is a practicing architect based in Madrid and Berlin, where he is currently Professor of Architectural and Urban Design at the TFH Berlin, University of Applied Sciences. His office, founded in 1993, has won various awards and competitions, such as the design of the Historic Archives of Granada currently under construction. He was Chair for Urban Design at the TU Berlin from 2006 to 2008 and Coordinator of the Master of Architecture of the Territory at the Accademia di Architettura, Mendrisio, prior to that. He has also taught at the AA, London, the ESARQ, in Barcelona and the University of Granada and lectured at the TU Delft, the NU Singapore and the Universität Stuttgart. He is currently writing a book entitled Degrees of Permanence. Geographical, Geometrical and Architectural Approaches to the Construction of the City, based on his PhD research, to be published next year by Random House.

 

Inhabiting Natural Parks. The City Unraveled

Last year’s hackneyed datum that "urban population for the first time in history outnumbers the rural one" has been taken for granted as justification to (continue) looking into the sprawling formless urban magma we used to name city. Should it not be taken as an opportunity to look to the rural? Furthermore isn’t the natural setting a possible territory where the vanishing city may resort to? Completing the old progressive "right to the urban" dictum, shouldn’t we consider arguing the case for a "right to the rural"? Couldn’t this rural right take place in nature? Could Walden be a precursor to finding a way out of junkspace today?

Nature, abundant or scarce, has always been an integral part of the city. Design disciplines dealing with nature as prime element such as gardening and landscape architecture have flourished in the urban setting. Today, with the expansion of the city, urban life (and therefore, the architecture discipline) is reaching out to nature. Instead of creating and recreating ecosystems such as gardens and landscapes, development is also taking place in the wilderness; not the type of development that would bulldoze it, but rather one that sets up communities whose implementation rules are about reducing impact as much as possible. Instead of taming nature, these communities could be about taming man.

The US Survey programme, a Research and Design Unit based at the University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, and this paper, its offspring, is concentrating critically and actively during the two coming semesters on the emergence of a new urban form, particularly focusing on those proliferating in the American West, which may "pave" the way for a new kind of open community whose aim it is to inhabit natural settings – such as those we would have previously regarded as Natural Parks.

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Addison Godel, The Ohio State University

Addison Godel is a student at the Knowlton School of Architecture at Ohio State, working towards a three-year Master of Architecture. He is a teaching assistant for a variety of history and theory courses, as well as two of the school’s European travel-abroad programs. His interests include the relationship between style and larger cultural forces, and the efforts of architecture to symbolically adapt and represent contemporary technology.

 
Revisiting 1923: Bauhaus, In The Muddle of History

The well-known economic travails of the Weimar Republic make it easy to accept the argument that the 1923 reinvention of the Bauhaus as a supplier of well-trained industrial artists was a decision based first and foremost on financial survival. This economic-determinist reading has been extended to cover the subsequent architectural product of the Bauhaus: the functionalist white box. In opposition to this claim that functionalism was the necessary and inevitable product of its circumstances, we find numerous examples of stylistically similar developments in the preceding decades, from wildly different social and economic contexts: Loos’s villas in Hietzing; the Belle Époque work of Hoffmann et al; the rationalized theosophy of De Stijl; and Gropius’s own work a decade earlier. Economic determinism fails to explain these outliers, while a theory driven solely by the evolution of styles is at a loss to answer the question, "Why now?"

If the development of the Bauhaus was not "guided by destiny and blind to values," does it necessarily follow that the only other explanation can be found in the internal preoccupations of an "autonomous, even autopoietic" discipline? This paper will attempt to avoid facile dichotomies in favor of a nuanced and precise examination of the 1923 transition as a historical moment. In addition to the revisited historical facts, a variety of theories on art-historical evolution will be brought to bear, embracing the aesthetic and the anecdotal but not excluding various structuralist frameworks. The ambition is not to produce a definitive, singular reading of 1923, but to muster a set of tools to produce complexly coherent readings of other moments of change in architecture.

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Ralf Hennig, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Ralf Hennig is a PhD-candidate in the chair of Theory and History of Modern Architecture at the Bauhaus-University Weimar. His prior research interests are focused on historical and current interaction between media, architecture and the city as well as the influence of the alliance of these entities on traditional principles of dwelling. In 2004-2005 he was responsible for the conception and constitution of the postgraduate Master’s degree programme MediaArchitecture at the Bauhaus-University Weimar. In 2007-2008 he worked there as a scientific associate in the chair of Sociology of Globalisation, involved in various activities such as the research project MEDIACITY.

 
Oída ouk eidós - I know that I don't know (Socrates)

The famous phrase from Plato’s Apology, oída ouk eidós – I know that I don’t know! – represents a general critical questioning of that which one claims to know. Socrates suggests that this alleged knowledge is an unprovable assumption, which under closer scrutiny is often revealed as indefensible pseudo-knowledge.

That such exclusive and conclusive preemptive notions also appear in the agendas of architectural concepts reflects the intentions of this paper. It is ‘living’ itself that should be questioned, living, which is mostly conceived of as an archaic constant with unchanging values. Of course there are the essential requirements, such as weatherproofing, which meet the demands of living and which always dictate the practice of human habitation. However, the ‘how’ of this practice is thereby not yet defined. This changes, and that is the thesis; accordingly the cultural conditions which influence this practice.

This can go so far that apparently conventional (and in this sense also statically distinguished) models for living reappear in some cases as their complete opposites. Terence Riley demonstrated this exemplarily with the relationship of the public vs. private (Riley 1999), in that he presented the modern private house not as a spatial articulation of introspective isolation, but rather as a profoundly active within the public sphere through the channels of various media. Using the influencing factors behind current changes of structure in society – i.e. increasing media dominance, mobilization and globalization – it should be possible to see this as a case which is not unique. Using the examples of previously clear distinctions, such as inside/outside, individual/community, living/working, house/city, place/non-place, reality/the virtual, it will be shown that dualisms grouped together around the concept of the private house in the course of the last few centuries are not only losing their clarity, but are also creating, through their reversal of conditions, a quasi inverse living concept.

However, wanting to persist enduringly with a concept of this kind would not be fair to reality. For as we know from Socrates: also the knowledge of ignorance is knowledge that we can‘t be sure about …

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Rixt Hoekstra, Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck

Rixt Hoekstra is an architectural historian and a Wissenschaftlich Mitarbeiter at the Leopold Franzens University of Innsbruck, where she teaches theory and history of architecture. Hoekstra studied architectural history Groningen, the Netherlands, and received her Phd in architectural history in 2005. Her publications include: Building versus Bildung, Manfredo Tafuri and the construction of a historical discipline (2005) and Lost in Translation? Tafuri on Germany, Tafuri in Germany, a history of reception (2008). Currently, her research interests focus on the status of criticality in architecture in relationship to the legacy of the Venice School and on genderstudies in architecture.

 
How critical is criticality? On the history of the Critical Project in architecture and the Humanities.

Since the publication of the essay "The Doppler Effect" by Sarah Whiting and Bob Somol in 2002, architecture’s supposed criticality once more stands at the epicentre of architectural debate. Whether viewed as a revolt against the father figure of Peter Eisenman or as a faithful following of the ideas of Rem Koolhaas, it is once more architecture’s potential to be significant for society at large that is made questionable. In my contribution to the Bauhaus colloquium I want to offer a broader framework to this discussion. Central to my paper is the notion that ‘criticality’ is not singularly an architectural concern, but encompasses society at large. For example, in the past decades a considerable part of theory production within the Humanities was aimed at the exploration of new critical insights and new tools. Both the architectural discourse used to legitimise architecture’s practices and the discourse within the Humanities was aimed at overcoming a ‘naïve’ oppositional criticism, thus looking for alternative ways to foster social change. The work of such different thinkers as Derrida, Deleuze or Latour should be viewed in this perspective. It is within this framework that I intend to evaluate both the architectural discourse of the past decades and scientific innovation in the Humanities. From this point of view I also want to address the questions raised by such ‘post-critics’ as the Dutch theoretician Roemer van Toorn, giving a critical answer to a post-critical position.

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Joachim Huber, Berner Fachhochschule

Dr. Joachim Huber is head of research in architectural processes at the Berne University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland. He is holding a PhD from the Bauhaus-University Weimar and an Executive MBA in general management from the University of St.Gallen. After a research scolarship at the Istituto Svizzero di Roma in 2000-01 he was Howard-LeFevre-Fellow at the Ohio State University in 2001-02.Interupted by visiting studies at the AA London, Dipl.Unit 1+2 in 89/90 he took his degree in architecture at the ETH Zürich in 1993.His doctorate thesis was republished in a 2nd edition in 2007: "Urban Topology - Architecture of the Boundryless City." Todays research topics range from transdisciplinarity, philosophy of science to urbanism and sustainable building lifecyclemanagement.

 

 
Globalisation after the T-Square

For a certain period and generation, the T-square was a synonym for a transglobal craftmenship of architecture, to be applied all across the planet, from London to Sidney, Vienna or Cape Town. The UIA defined standards compatible to the T-square which provided commensurability of the global architectural production, all this probably best represented by the international style. Today, the situation is more complex.

Thesis A: Economy, transculturality ("worldarchitecture") and architecture ask for a new form of transdisciplinarity, that is today unknown in the world of architecture: Mode-2 transdisciplinarity (Gibbons/Novotny) for complex systems, interactive teams, evaluation of criteria and quality and radical innovation.

Thesis B: Cultural dimensions of management (Geert Hofstede) in global architecture is replacing critical regionalism (Kenneth Frampton). Contextualism is getting a meaning of similar to communication theory.

Thesis C: Production of architecture is always a translation (cultures, pardigms, economies; Jacques Derrida) in a zone of transition (liminoid zone; Victor Turner) of rituals and negotiations that are more and more put in opposition to management oriented negotiation strategies (Harvard concept; Fischer/Ury/Patton).

Thesis D: Economised, management oriented architecture is market- and process-driven on one hand, transcultural and transdisciplinary on the other hand - slowely and creeping a consistend change of the profession is taking place in worldarchitecture that is reaching beyond any UIA standards.

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Sandra Lippert-Vieira, Universität Karlsruhe

Sandra Lippert-Vieira, 1971 in Lissabon, Portugal geboren, schloss 1995 ihr Architekturstudium an der Universidade Lusíada in Lissabon ab. Bis 2003 arbeitete sie als Freie Architektin in Lissabon (www.nuonzx.com) und war Entwurfsassistentin an der Universidade Moderne und Universidade Lusófona in Lissabon bei Prof. em. Amâncio d’Alpoim Guedes (www.guedes.info), Lehrstuhl für Entwurf. Derzeit ist sie wiss. Mit. am Lehrstuhl für Gebäudelehre und Entwerfen bei Prof. Daniele Marques, TH Karlsruhe und promovierte an der BTU Cottbus, Prof. Führ, zum Thema „Dissoziative Architektur. Zwischen Teufelskralle und Scheinriese. Wege zu einem weiteren Verständnis der Architektur des Expressionismus." Bisherige Veröffentlichungen: „Wege zu einer Rezeptionsästhetik in der Architektur: das implizite Leben der gebauten Welt," in: Wolkenkuckucksheim (Heft 2/08); "Texte und Kontexte" von Jürgen Habermas und "Martin Heidegger. Unterwegs zu seiner Biographie" von Hugo Ott. Forschungsschwerpunkte: Expressionistische Architektur, Outsider Architektur, Architekturinterpretationsmethoden, Avantgarde und Postanarchismus.

 

 
Walter Gropius und Ferdinand Tönnis: Bauhaus, Gemeinschaft, Biopolitik und was nun?

Der Wandel vom so genannten expressionistischen zum funktionalistischen Bauhaus war auch politisch bedingt. Walter Gropius verfolgte beharrlich und seit seiner ersten Lektüre von Ferdinand Tönnies’ Buch „Gesellschaft und Gemeinschaft" die organische Regulierung der Gesellschaft über die Architektur. Der Anspruch auf eine Einheit von Handwerk und Kunst war 1923 nicht allein unaktuell, er hatte das Bauhaus in die Gegenrichtung seines Programms geführt. Über das unmittelbare handwerkliche Gestalten wurden Gegenstände generiert, die, individualistisch geprägt, ein vielfältiges Spektrum von Bedürfnissen befriedigen konnten und entsprechend förderten.

In der neuen Einheit von Kunst und Technik sah der „Silberne Prinz" (Gropius) das Mittel, sich von der Vielfalt der Werkstattergebnisse zu distanzieren und eine einheitliche Formensprache und homogenes Denken im Bauhaus durchzusetzen mit dem Ziel, im Sinne von Ferdinand Tönnies eine universelle Einheit herzustellen.

Unter dem heutigen Blickwinkel einer Diskussion um Biopolitik scheint es jedoch weniger relevant, nachzuweisen, dass das Gründungsmanifest von 1919 bereits biopolitisch gepolt war. Es ist interessanter zu verstehen, ob und welche Mittel zwischen 1919 und 1923 entwickelt wurden, um Gropius’ Idee einer organisch regulierenden Architektur kritisch zu begegnen (Johannes Itten, Gerhard Marcks).

In der Gläsernen Kette entwickelte sich der Keim einer ideologiekritischen, nicht organischen autonomen Gestaltung: diese architektonische Avantgarde schuf eine projektive Praxis im Sinne heutiger Theoretiker.

Vorliegender Beitrag will ähnlichen Ansätzen im Bauhaus nachgehen und fragen, ob und wie sie von Gropius verdrängt, zur kritischen Architektur instrumentalisiert oder als ideologiekritische Keime bis in die Postmoderne weitergeführt wurden.

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Albert Narath, Columbia University New York

Albert Narath is a doctoral candidate in modern architectural history at Columbia University in New York and a Paul Mellon Pre-doctoral Fellow at the Center for Advanced Research in the Visual Arts at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC. He holds an MA degree from the Architectural Association in London. His dissertation concerns architectural and art historical debates surrounding the Neo-baroque at the end of the nineteenth century in Germany.

 

 
The Baroque Effect

A fascination with mood, atmosphere, ornament and spatial effect has emerged as a central point of connection across a wide spectrum of writings and built projects within recent architectural discourse. Spurred in no small measure by the introduction of modeling, rendering and animation software into studios in the 1990’s and by more recent advances in digital fabrication methods, this renewed attention to the realm of aesthetics attempts at its most brazen and simplistic level, as articulated in the introduction to the Matters of Sensation exhibition staged in New York in 2008, "to answer no questions, solve no problems and broach no oppositions." Instead, "it is about a fascination with architectural forms that induce sensation… and, above all, about experiencing pleasure."

This paper will seek to trace the emergence of this architecture of pleasure through an interrogation of the rehabilitation of the Baroque by architects and critics during the last two decades. Critics have frequently described the curved, creased and folded surfaces of a host of recent buildings in over-simplified fashion as "Neo-baroque." At the same time, from explorations by Bernard Cache of Gilles Deleuze’s conception of the Baroque fold in the 1990’s to more recent investigations of Baroque form by architects like Luc Merx and Christian Holl in their continuing "Rococo Relevance" research, an often vague appeal to the Baroque has accompanied, ghost-like, the development of what we might call postcritical architectural effects.

The paper will also attempt to align recent interest in the "a-signifying and apolitical sources of visual pleasure" with the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century German investigations into empathy and architectural space that played a central role in establishing an understanding of the Baroque as formal play. The paper will show that research into Baroque effect during the formative stages of architectural modernism resonates strongly with the renewed emphasis on aesthetics within postcritical discourse. Rather, however, than attempting to position the Baroque itself as a "source" of the recent return to architectural sensation, the paper will ultimately use the uncanny persistence of the Baroque as a vehicle for charting the principles and limitations of the aesthetics of projective practice.

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Yolanda Ortega Sanz, Universitat de Girona

Yolanda Ortega Sanz is an architect and associate professor at Polytechnic School, Universitat de Girona, Catalonia, Spain; where she teaches architectural design. Ortega was educated at School of architecture in Barcelona and Arkitektskolen i Aarhus, Denmark. Later on, she received a grant to be a young researcher at Danmarks Kunstbibliotek, Copenhagen. Currently, she is PhD Candidate in the research group FORM where she develops her thesis entitled "Nordic assembly" focus on Modern Architecture in Nordic countries. Her research has been published and presented in several conferences as: 1st International Conference on contemporary architects: Jørn Utzon, Sevilla, Spain; 1st Conference on architectural competition, Nordic Symposium, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden; or Responsibilities and Opportunities in Architectural Conservation, CSAAR, Amman, Jordan.

 
 
welfare state: sociological aesthetics. architecture and democracy in Nordic countries

The first basis of this paper is to explore welfare state on Nordic countries, particularly in Denmark, as a sociological aesthetics on Modern and Contemporary Architecture.

After World War II, the necessity of reconstruction in most European countries gave political support to the idea of industrialization and the development of the welfare state. The cultural and political context influenced the perception of architecture. Modern architecture was not only connected to the social goals of the welfare state, but also seen as the symbol of a more democratic and open society.

Materials, techniques and aesthetics that Modern architecture both utilized and promoted were accepted and perceived as beneficial to the large masses of people in Nordic welfare societies. A new universal aesthetics based on simplicity, austerity of form and economy was implemented in public buildings, housing, etc. and was initially presented in the Stockholm exhibition in 1930 conceived by Gregor Paulsson and Erik Gunnar Asplund.

Modern Danish architects were advocating a sociological aesthetics and fighting for an everyday art and architecture seeking to bring together progressive design trends, contemporary technology, and the spirit of social utopianism that characterized much Danish design of the period.

The Welfare Architecture, velfærdsstatens arkitektur, addresses aspects of welfare society, as implemented in the Scandinavian model of a democratic society. This model, engineered and marketed in the 1950s, has steadily adapted and renewed since the 1970s in response to a globalized economy and Europeanization.

Contemporary architecture and urban planning is still focus in attending current social and cultural demands, building techniques and the validity of the universal aesthetics values which characterized the Modern Architecture. For instance, Ørestad is the new urban development located on the island of Amager, Copenhagen, conceived as a laboratory of new ideas: "an experimental environment for new lifestyles and urban spaces in a network society".

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Silke Ötsch, Leopold Franzens Universität Innsbruck

Dr. Silke Ötsch is lecturer at the Institute for Architecture Theory at the University of Innsbruck (Austria). She worked as scientific employee at the Institute or Construction and Design at the Innsbruck University, in the architectural offices of Arets Architekten in Maastricht as well as Haid und Partner in Nürnberg and for Attac Germany. Silke Ötsch received her doctoral degree at the Bauhaus-University Weimar and studied architecture in Weimar and Paris. She published books and in the field of architecture theory with the title „Stripping las Vegas" (with K. Jaschke) and „Überwältigen und Schmeicheln", and articels in the review GAM and others, and published in the field of political economy; the latest book „Das Casino schließen" (together with T. Sauer and P. Wahl) on the financial crisis is coming in April 2009. Her main research interest is globalization and financial architecture.

 
 

Explaining Junkspace. Architects between market ideology and financialization

Against the background of the idea of a "headless power" coupled with the conception of the end of ideologies, questions on decision-making, constituting arguments, and authorities were not asked. It was overlooked that in various sectors of society decisions were justified with financial criteria, which in turn go back to both constraints of the economic system and to the purposefully implanted ideology of the free-market. Architects such as Koolhaas took this ideology for a natural law respectively referred to it for opportunistic reasons. Consequently, they responded with individual, little systemic strategies to the changing conditions of "globalization". In view of the economic situation of architects these strategies can be regarded as a failure.

The ideological component of architecture critiques of the 90s and their shortcomings will be demonstrated on the example texts of Koolhaas. Some starting points for further reaching analysis will be identified based on theories on financialization from the field of political economy (Crotty, Duménil / Lévy) and cultural economy (MacKenzie, Eturk / Froud / Williams, Lordon, Kädtler). Possibilities of a more systemically justified approach will be introduced, using the example of "junkspace".

In considering the role of architects in the context of financialization, junkspace can be described in a more accurate way. It can be explained how this category of architecture emerges and why this goes along with the rise of a certain kind of architect. Contrary to what is assumed, the prototypical actor is not the star architect but a "second tier architect", i.e. an economically successful architect who acts in the background and has evolved a particular strategy to satisfy expectations of high returns. In the process of financialization, the professional group of architects is getting differentiated into several groups characterized through different strategies and economic performance.

Beyond the concrete topic of the contribution, it could be discussed to which extent architecture theory as an interdisciplinary science should deal more critically with theories taken up from other disciplines and which is the role of empirical data.

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Martin Peschken, TU Braunschweig

Martin Peschken studied History of Art and Literature in Berlin and Madrid. In 2005 he completed his doctoral studies in comparative literature at Freie Universität Berlin. He worked then as a curator of the gallery "Laden V-17" in Berlin. In 2005 he joined the project-team of International Building Exhibition "Stadtumbau 2010" in Saxony-Anhalt based at Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau, where he curated several exhibitions and urban projects. He currently works as Scientific Assistant at Technische Universität Braunschweig in the department of "History and Theory of Architecture and Urbanism"

 

 
 

World Stages for Lady Justice. On the architectural representation of international crime courts

„Transparency, communication, efficiency" - such are the values of the International Criminal Court (ICC) that allow for a translation into architectural forms. This is the interpretation of the jury in the competition for the ICC’s permanent premises in The Hague, which awarded the first prize to the design proposed by Ingenhoven Architects. In 2003, the British office Norman and Dawbarn Ltd. constructed a prestigious site for the Special Criminal Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) in Freetown, Sierra Leone’s capital. Here, as with the ICC, ’transparency’ is a major concept of the architectural design. In a more overtly sculptural understanding the architects even intended the building’s shape to picture the ‘scales of justice’.

The ICC and the SCSL are the first courts for which buildings were or will be specifically created to represent this international branch of criminal justice: They are architectural symbols of universal and essential values of justice. Or are they not?

In my paper, I will discuss the relation between those symbolic aims and the tribunals self-assessment as being judiciary institutions of an emerging international community. My lecture will be based on the analysis of the linguistic and pictorial images which can be found in the announcements for architectural competitions, the judgements of their juries, the descriptions of the architects as well as in the designs themselves. Possible prototypes of this architectural task, such as buildings for the United Nations or the League of Nations, will also be examined in order to determine whether analogies between past and present global and judicial representations exist. Do architects find solutions to adequately translate those essential and universal values? Or do these projects just correspond to the vogues and styles of global (or regional) architectural design? How do they come to terms with the tension between their local contexts and the expectations of the global community?

Another reference point for the comparison are 19th -century palaces of justice that provide a stark contrast to the more democratic images now being produced. Like their national archetypes, the buildings for the ICC and the SCSL follow the scenography of the ‘Theatre of Criminal Justice’: In the international criminal justice system individuals, not States, are accused of violations of international law. The personal appearance of the accused as well as the presence of the public created certain spatial programmes. In what way does the architecture ‘stage’ the prosecution? How do the atmospheric or narrative designs correspond or foil the needs of the prosecution? And what is the role of the public in those globally staged manifestations of justice?

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Maria Prieto, University of Camilo José Cela Madrid

Maria Prieto is an architect, artist, researcher, and assistant professor at the University of Camilo José Cela, Madrid, where she teaches design as well as theory and history of architecture. She received her Título de Arquitecta from the University of Navarre (1997), MSAAD from Columbia University (2004), and was a Visiting Scholar at the Center on Organizational Innovation (Columbia University) (2007). In Spring, she will defend her doctoral dissertation at the University of Navarre on the Manhattan-like financial hub so-called AZCA, which was built as the modern heart of Madrid metropolis and led by the different local politics and geopolitics for the European integration during the Cold War. To re-present that model of "capitalist urbanism" and its turning into a planetary replica of Manhattan, she is currently drawing a theory on Cold War interactions in the production of urban modernity by obsessively forwarding a strategic representation of the Twenty-First Century.

 
 

 
 

Architectures of Manhattanization: Cities, Finance, Power 

With the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1947) and Treaty of Rome (1957), Europe becomes the scenario for the innovation of an international architecture, conceived for both internal integration and external competitiveness in the Western market. In those years, a multitude of actors (architects, urban planners, civil servants…), and actions (reorganization of competitions, reviewing of urban policy, modernization of institutions…), organized the most representative urban centers of the continent (spanning from commercial to financial services), which would configure not only new processes of architectural production of an ideal, Manhattan-like city for the European Economic Community, but also the European territory as a new geography of centrality: Europe of the year 2000.

To unveil the origin of that model of technocratic, urban modernization mediated as the "Manhattanization" of Madrid, Paris, Brussels, London, and Frankfurt, this paper analyses the urban regeneration of those cities, as well as their shared agendas for the integration of Europe as an economic superpower. To examine the common, emerging "capitalist urbanism," and its turning into a planetary replica of Manhattan’s model, this paper also centers on tracing and questioning in depth the spatiotemporal management of those urban transformations that would (co)change the global order during the Cold War, as involved in the integration and centralization dynamics of a Europe designed to overcome an imagined future at the turn to the Third Millennium.

This paper is intended as a contribution to explore our understanding of architecture and its politics of time linked to volatility in finance (the obsessions and anxieties around the arrow of time linked to technocrat agendas in the international market), as well as a contribution to our comprehension of the challenges and constraints taking place inside globalization, since the emergence of globalization in the early nineties till the present-day global financial crisis.

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Grace Quiroga, TU Wien

Grace Quiroga studied architecture at the University of Michigan and at the Vienna University of Technology. Her ongoing architectural projects include the design of a housing project in the Chinese province of Sichuan for a thousand families displaced by the earthquake of 2008. In addition, she is working on a doctoral dissertation titled "Rem Koolhaas and the architecture culture of the AA in the 1970’s".

 
 

 
 

Globalized Utopias 

On February 9, the TVCC building in Beijing, designed by OMA, went up in flames like a giant lantern. In a paranoid way, this unfortunate event made sense since it was the evening of the Yuan Xiao or ‘Lantern’ festival that marks the end of the Chinese New Year celebrations. The tower was part of the CCTV complex that also includes the headquarters of the Chinese State Broadcasting company. According to the CCTV news, the fire was ignited by illegal firecrackers set off by Beijing residents; later it was reported that the rockets had been fired by an illegal crew hired by the CCTV itself. It has been suggested that the destruction of the TVCC tower might be seen by the Chinese as a bad omen that could put an end to the habit of inviting Western star architects to design major monuments in the capital city. Certainly, the general building boom in Beijing seems to be coming to a halt. According to some estimates, 500 million square feet of commercial real estate have been developed in the city since 2006, more than all the office space in Manhattan, and this number does not include government projects. To date, 100 million square feet of office space are vacant, a supply that should not be exhausted for at least fourteen years. Some of the government projects are also facing difficulties in finding any reasonable use. To take an example, the National Stadium, a work of Herzog & De Meuron, has proven as expensive to maintain (about seven million euro a year) as it is difficult to rent. So far only one event has been booked at the Bird’s Nest for this year: the Chinese version of Puccini’s Turandot, staged by Zhang Yimou to celebrate the first anniversary of the Olympics. In response, the Citic Group announced on January 31 that it will convert the stadium into a shopping mall. In addition to such functional problems, the monuments designed by HdM, OMA and other Western offices have been criticized for celebrating a repressive political regime. But the designers think differently. Jacques Herzog explains that the stadium is actually an "act of resistance," a "Trojan horse" that allows for all kinds of different uses: "we made everyday meeting places possible in locations that are not easily monitored, places with all kinds of niches and smaller segments." Likewise, Rem Koolhaas likes to claim that his buildings create new kinds of freedoms. All along he has maintained that the CCTV building will change the culture of the Chinese media and the architecture will inspire the broadcaster to become a key force driving progress and openness.

The paper will examine the ideology behind such claims, in particular the popular notion of architecture as a Deleuzean virtual structure that unleashes new events and lets novel functions emerge. A particular focus will be on the theories of Koolhaas and the question whether his theoretical about-face from his earlier dismissal of identity (as in the concepts of the Typical Plan and the Generic City) to his more recent obsession with a particular kind of uniqueness (as in the projects for Prada, Beijing or Dubai) can be explained as responses to globalization.

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Katharina Richter, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar

Katharina Richter holds a degree in Architecture, Urban- and Regional Planning from the Bauhaus-University Weimar, where she is appointed as Assistant Professor at the Chair of Computer Science in Architecture since 2000. She teaches architecture studio in undergraduate and graduate programs and has been supervising several international teaching projects. In Fall 2004 she was teaching and researching at the Washington Alexandria Architecture Consortium - Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Alexandria, VA. Her current research focuses on the investigation of the potential of computer based exchange of experiential knowledge in architecture. Between 2000 and 2006 she coordinated third party verification procedures at the Collaborative Research Center SFB 524 „Materials and Structures in Revitalization of Buildings", Bauhaus-University Weimar, Germany. Her work has been published at various international conferences as well as in related reviewed journals.

 
 

 
 

Transforming to Expert - On the Role of Experiential Knowledge in Architecture 

This paper deals with the question on how architectural knowledge can be detained respectively how it can be conveyed. It approaches this topic by discussing the highly complex subject of knowledge in architecture in general and experiential knowledge in architecture in particular. Thereby the role of experiential knowledge in transforming layman to expert is of special interest.

Core of this contribution forms the discussion of the question in how far the engagement with exemplary architectural objects, often referred to as referential objects or precedents has the potential to convey architectural experiential knowledge. The discussion of this question is based on the prevailing view that exemplary architectural objects are to be regarded as a rich source of experiential knowledge. A second aspect of this argumentation is grounded on the common argument that designers often and regularly make use of referential objects during design. This argument is repeatedly put forward by system developers of knowledge based computer systems in supporting their chosen strategy in creating these systems. The paper investigates in how far the engagement with referential objects by architects and student architects during architectural design is actually aimed at learning from these objects and supporting their design process by the experiences made by others. One Result of this conference contribution is the classification of the different types of usage and situations in which it is made use of precedents in architecture.

The reflections of this paper are undertaken before the background of a critical discussion of a paradigm of Artificial Intelligence applied to the domain of architectural design. They integrate knowledge of various disciplines such as design theory, architectural computing, cognitive sciences and IT.

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Andreas Rumpfhuber, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Copenhagen

Andreas Rumpfhuber is Architect and Researcher and currently based in Vienna, Austria. He studied architecture at University of Technology in Graz and the Bartlett School of Architecture in London. He is member of the research collective roundtable.kein.org at the Centre for Research Architecture at Goldsmiths College in London. He has taught and lectured at architecture schools in Europe and is a regular contributor to the Vienna street newspaper Augustin and architecture journals like derivé, UmBau, Monu, Arkitekten. In his office he is currently working on small scale projects.

 
 
 
 

No(n)-places of Immaterial Labour - Architecture's Dildotopia?

In Beatriz Preciado’s Manifesto contra-sexuel (French: 2000, German: 2004) the body is being constructed as an arbitrarily programmable container. In her dildotopia each part of the body is able to become sexually stimulated: Free floating, the arm, feet, breasts, the stomach, but also the penis become dildo-prosthesis. Thus Preciado radicalizes and extends Gender Studies’ understanding of the socially constructed gender with a spatial aspect – the body itself. In her contra-sexual manifesto the act of programming the body at will, becomes the ultimate moment of emancipation for a new contra-society.

The architectures of Bürolandschaft (office-landscape, Brothers Schnelle & Team, 1956 onwards), but also of Fun Palace (Cedric Price, Joan Littlewood, Gordon Pask, Frank Newby, 1962-66) and later of Centraal Beheer (Herman Hertzberger with Lucas & Niemeijer 1967-72), somehow like Preciado, were explicitly aiming at an emancipatory, political goal: the emancipation and empowerment of workers and a new radically new society. The three examples mirror the mechanisms of the cybernetic hypothesis – affirming a conceptual model that replaced the liberal model (as discussed by Michel Foucault) as dominant formation of discourse after the Second World War. As a form of governance, cybernetics postulated a new form of living-together that promised to help to overcome the trauma of the devastating war, and provided conceptual instruments of control that promised a universally applicable, consensual democracy, or better, a governance of the self that could be applied to machines as well as to human beings. In doing so, these designs presuppose an autonomous acting, arbitrarily programmable workers-subject that increasingly gets connected to automata, a subject complying with the emancipatory concept of the cyborg (Harraway: 1985, Negri/Hardt: 1997 & 2000), that Preciado also draws upon.

Interesting enough the Bürolandschaft, the Fun Palace and Centraal Beheer create – as paradigmatic examples of architecture of immaterial labour – functionally open, arbitrarily programmable containers, like the body of Preciado’s dildotopia. Their specific spatial, organizational solutions though, create sheer endless interiors – holistic and autonomous worlds within the city – anticipating in various ways contemporary, global spaces, like airports, shopping malls, or business parks that are being discussed in contemporary architecture discourse in a highly ambivalent, cynical or even pessimistic way as Non-Places (Marc Augé: 1995) or as Junkspaces (Koolhaas: 2004). In my presentation I will analyse the three projects in their discursive and spatial construction. I will ask for the very strategy of emancipation within these projects, asking for the political instances produced by these designs. In doing so I will compare their way of affirmation to Preciados’ concept of contra.

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Anne Schmedding, TU Braunschweig

Anne Schmedding ist Kunst- und Architekturhistorikerin und seit 2005 wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an der TU Braunschweig im Fachbereich Geschichte und Theorie der Architektur und Stadt. Sie ist Mitherausgeberin des Kataloges „Gesetz und Freiheit" zu Leben und Werk des Architekten Friedrich Wilhelm Kraemers (Berlin 2007). Sie war von 1996-1999 Redakteurin der Zeitschrift Daidalos und ist Mitherausgeberin des Buches „Architektur in Berlin" (Berlin 1999). Sie war wissenschaftliche Kuratorin und Mitarbeiterin der Ausstellung „Stadt der Architektur. Architektur der Stadt", die im Jahr 2000 im Neuen Museum in Berlin zu sehen war. Momentaner Forschungsschwerpunkt ist Architektur und Kunst der westdeutschen Nachkriegszeit. Sie schreibt Ihre Dissertation über Dieter Oesterlen.

Identität und Architektur in der Nachkriegszeit der BRD.

Nach 1945 war die Architektur aufgefordert, einer neuen Weltordnung in Europa Gesicht zu geben. Ihr kam auch bei der Identitätskonstruktion der neu gegründeten BRD eine hohe Bedeutung zu. Gegenüber der staatlich geforderten Modernisierung und Amerikanisierung stand hier ein gleichzeitiges gesellschaftliches Bedürfnis der Kontinuität. Einzelne Monumente wurden erhalten und rekonstruiert, um eine eigene, im Gegensatz zur amerikanischen als abendländisch wahrgenommenen Traditionslinie konstruieren zu können.

Anders als heute wurden von den damaligen Architekten diese auf den ersten Blick widersprüchlichen gesellschaftlichen und politischen Anforderungen reflektiert und diskutiert. An den Debatten um die Rekonstruktionen historischer Bauten läßt sich nachvollziehen, wie nach 1945 die Verschmelzung vermeintlich gegensätzlicher Positionen der klassischen Moderne (Traditionalisten vs. Moderne) stattfand. Sie zeugen von der Suche nach einer politisch konformen Synthese zwischen eigener Geschichte und dem „International Style" Amerikas.

In diesem Spannungsfeld befindet sich der Architekt Dieter Oesterlen. Er hat mit der Rekonstruktion der Hannoveranischen frühgotischen Marktkirche (1946-52/59), dem Parlamentsgebäude für den Niedersächsischen Landtag auf den Ruinen des klassizistischen Leineschlosses (1957-62) und schließlich dem Historischen Museum (1964-67) der Stadt Hannover drei identitätsstiftende Bauten gegeben. Es ging dem Architekten um eine „Gestaltung dem Sinne nach", also nicht um originalgetreue Rekonstruktion, sondern um eine Übersetzung in seine eigene Gegenwart in einem essentialistisch zu nennenden Stilverständnis.

Der von dem Architekten an sich selbst formulierte Anspruch eines „zeitgemäßen Bauens", das sich vor allem in konstruktiven und technischen Innovationen, sowie der Materialwahl ausdrückt, und eine Wiederaufnahme des wesentlichen Diktums des funktionalistisch orientierten Bauhauses nach 1923 ist, wird in dem Wiederaufbau historischer Bauten verbunden mit der Einbettung in Traditionslinien. Auch die Kirchbauten Oesterlens verbinden expressionistische kristalline Formen mit zeitgemäßen Materialien wie Beton. Diese für die unmittelbare Nachkriegszeit kennzeichnende Forderung nach einer komplex verstandenen Zeitgenossenschaft der Architektur scheint momentan vor allem in Deutschland einer Flucht in die historische Stadt des 19. Jahrhunderts gewichen zu sein. Ein Blick zurück scheint hier angebracht.

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Tatjana Schneider/ Jeremy Till, The University of Sheffield

Tatjana Schneider is lecturer at the School of Architecture, University of Sheffield. She holds a PhD in architecture. She worked in architectural practice in Germany and the UK, and has taught, lectured and published widely (including ‘Flexible Housing’ with Jeremy Till). She was a member of the worker’s cooperative G.L.A.S. (Glasgow Letters on Architecture and Space), which undertook agit-prop works, educational workshops, community based design consultancy and produced the quarterly journal glaspaper. Her work focuses on the production and political economy of the built environment. Current work includes a research project on ‘Alternative Architectural Praxis’ (with J. Till).

Jeremy Till is an architect and educator. He is Dean of Architecture and the Built Environment at the University of Westminster, London. His extensive written work includes ‘Architecture and Participation’, ‘Flexible Housing’ (with T. Schneider), which was winner of the 2007 RIBA President’s Medal for Research, and Architecture Depends (MIT Press). As an architect, he is a director in Sarah Wigglesworth Architects, best known for their pioneering building, 9 Stock Orchard Street. In 2006 he was appointed to represent Britain at the Venice Architecture Biennale.

Architecture Fiddles while the World Burns

This paper will start to explore current architectural needs, possibilities and capacities for action by focusing on the concept of agency. It will discuss the limits of standard architectural approaches that tend to focus on the production of building as aesthetic and technical object devoid of ethical and moral dimensions. Approaches, that lead to the complete marginalisation of the profession and the discipline and a self-inflicted limitation on its capability and ‘power’ or its negation thereof. Agency, as a concept, begins a discussion about how architects and others might operate as agents with others in the production of social space thereby extending the role of the architect to take into account the consequences of architecture as much as the objects of architecture. This is a shift away from further discourse within discourse and dealings with redundant set of issues, but the opening up of the discipline in order to include.

The paper thus makes an argument for ‘alternative’ models of architectural praxis in order to address the changing social, economic and environmental contexts that face architectural practice. It takes agency and returns to its original meaning as something that effects social change, so that the architect becomes not the agent of change, but one among many agents.By referring to Anthony Giddens’ formulation of agency as something that "presumes the capability of acting otherwise", this paper makes a case for architecture as a socially and politically aware agency, situated firmly in the context of the world beyond, and critical of the formations beyond in order to better engage with them in a transformative manner. In that, this paper is a critique of the internalisation of architecture, of retreat and non-engagement, of claims to autonomy, of concepts of avant-garde, of too light an understanding of informal economies, of projective versus critical, of post-criticality, and the commodification of knowledge. It is a critique of a terminology that has shoved architecture into the corner it currently finds itself in (namely that of almost complete irrelevance to social and political concerns) and in which the currency still seems to be that of the non-compromising, artistically led, male hero.

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Lara Schrijver, TU Delft

Lara Schrijver is an assistant professor at the Faculty of Architecture of the TU Delft. She is one of three program leaders for a new research program in the department of architecture, ‘The Architectural Project and its Foundations’. Schrijver holds degrees in architecture from Princeton University and the TU Delft. She received her Ph.D. from the TU Eindhoven in 2005. Schrijver has taught design and theory courses, and contributed to conferences in the Netherlands as well as abroad. She was an editor for OASE, journal for architecture, for ten years, and was co-organizer of the 2006 conference ‘The Projective Landscape’. Her current work revolves around the role of architecture in the city, and its responsibility in defining the public domain. Her first book, Radical Games, on the influence of the 1960s on contemporary discourse, is forthcoming in the spring of 2009.

Architectural expertise and cultural transformation: projective potential

The current debate on ‘post-critical’ and ‘projective’ architecture is largely grounded on the quicksand of hidden presumptions and undisclosed preconceptions, which has allowed the two notions to be conflated despite their distinctions. Yet a fundamental point is typically overlooked: where the ‘post-critical’ largely appears to dismiss the previous paradigm of the so-called ‘critical’, the projective attempts to incorporate criticality and re-inscribe it directly within the disciplinary boundaries of architecture.

The opposition between an aesthetic and a political role for architecture rests on a traditional frame of avant-garde critical theory. Instead, the spirit of the projective suggests that we should rethink how architecture ‘works’. This would entail understanding the reconfigured relation between a political/societal and aesthetic/cultural engagement. Insofar as architecture can lay claim to a form of ‘agency,’ it may simply not be captured within the traditional frame of an avant-garde practice based on critical theory. This is what the proponents of a ‘projective’ architecture hoped to put forward, although the debate in the end lost its footing as it never properly challenged the fundamental paradigms that the current discourse rests on.

This paper will expose a number of the misconceptions surrounding the discourse, particularly those that have traversed the Atlantic, as became apparent during the 2006 conference The Projective Landscape. It will put forward a position that recalibrates the role of architecture as an activity that is both dependent on a certain autonomy of the discipline (in terms of its traditions, rules and continually developing expertise) and simultaneously needs its relation with societal preconditions in the form of an embedded critique. Building on the work of Bruno Latour on critique and Richard Sennett’s ideas on the craftsman, this rereading takes its cues from the position of the projective but attempts to extend it to a more fruitful dialogue with the everyday practice of architecture.

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Bettina Schürkamp, Köln

Bettina Schürkamp completed her diploma in architecture at the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart in 1995 and attended the graduate course „Histories and Theories of Architecture" at the Architectural Association in London. For more than five years she worked as a practising architect for architectural firms in England and Germany such as Bolles+Wilson, Münster and Peter Kulka, Köln. From 2001 until 2007 she held a research and teaching position at the Institute for History and Theory of Architecture at Wuppertal University. Currently she is completing her dissertation on the Dutch architectural firm OMA*AMO and writes as a freelance journalist for architectural magazines in Germany and Switzerland. Her work was been published in magazines such as Archithese, Arch+, Bauwelt and Deutsche Bauzeitung.

Generic Realism - Knowledge-Based Design Practice in AMO Identity Studies

In his publications on design intelligence Michael Speaks discusses how a knowledge-based economy transforms the design process as well as the organisation of architectural practices. According to Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt through the process of postmodernisation all production tends toward the production of services, toward becoming informationalised. Speaks presented a number of architectural firms that give an example of how knowledge, affect, and communication play an important part in critical practise today. One of the chosen architectural offices was the think tank AMO, founded by Rem Koolhaas. In an interview Jeffrey Inaba, head of AMO until 2003, drew attention to architectural labour that instead of a building produces an immaterial good, such as a service, a cultural product, or communication. He emphasised that the increasing importance of immaterial labour calls for a new conceptionalization of architectural knowledge.

In light of this, a close study of the working drawings of the exhibition The Image of Europe from the OMA*AMO Archive may answers questions regarding new analytical and symbolic tasks as well as creative and intelligent manipulations in immaterial labour. In my PhD research I analyse the various forms of design knowledge generated during the working process, which are often overlooked in favour of "the design." In different phases of the creative process one can observe how in successive layers diagrams, images, atmospheres, and cultural references as well as political issues are applied to the complex panoramic collage. The multilayer portrait of the hybrid European identity exemplifies how techniques from art, literature, statistics and politics merge in the organizational depth of the AMO collages. Similar to extreme programming and prototyping in other disciplines, the team, clients and the public interact on several levels in OMA*AMO’s culture of congestion. The Image of Europe shows, how the specific use of architectural knowledge expands the territory of architecture in the age of Empire. Thereby it opens up new opportunities for architects in the diffuse Foucauldian network of economical, political as well as cultural power.

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Michele Stavagna, Berlin/ Mailand

Michele Stavagna is an architect and architectural historian, currently university lecturer at the Università degli Studi di Trieste (Italy), where he teaches theory and history of industrial design. Stavagna was educated at the Università IUAV of Venice (Italy) and holds a degree in architectural design and a PhD in history of architecture and urban design. Currently he is correspondent from Italy for the architectural magazine "Der Architekt – BDA". He has edited the first Italian edition of Die Baukunst der neuesten Zeit by G. A. Platz (in printing). His research themes focus to the birth and affirmation of Modernism in Central Europe and its relationship with the other visual arts within the broader social context of the modern mass public.

The Herpich Affair 1924: Modern Architecture challenging Economical Establishment

Between 1923 and 1924 Erich Mendelsohn, the most successful professionals to date among the supporters of a modern, developed the plan for the renewal and expansion of the building for the C. A. Herpich, Furriers on the Leipzigerstrasse, which was the most important commercial street in Berlin.

The entangled history of the project approval and realization testifies a crucial moment for the affirmation of modern architecture. Through a gathering of the most prominent of the modernist supporters in Berlin and an audacious use of the mass media, Mendelsohn succeeded to consolidate an alliance between the new generation of architects and a new type of architectural patronage, that recognized in the new architectonic language an affinity with a new way to operate the economic development in the modern time. Usually the controversy on the Herpich project has been led back to a mere style debate, focusing on the supposed resistance of the old Ludwig Hoffmann, city-architect of Berlin up to April 1924, against the new architecture. Actually the true opposition was lead by the mayor of Berlin as representative of established economic interests that recognized in the new architecture the ally of a radical change in the economic processes, which guided the development of the modern society.

Therefore new architecture was intended by part of the economical establishment as a potential for more dangerous economical change than any political challenge. The mass media, above all the daily press, thanks to the support of an important patron, the publisher Lachmann-Mosse, were used by Mendelsohn to collect the public interest and consent towards the new architecture, transforming a personal and professional battle in a chance to gather the modernist architects inside the traditional organization of the Bund Deutscher Architekten into a lobbyist group, the Zehnerring, crediting it as a culturally innovative force, which was not tied to academic and educational experiments, but really inserted in the more advanced professional circuit and therefore able to attract the interest of new economic forces and clients, being one of the decisive factors of the following success of German Modernism.

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Nicole Stöcklmayr, Universität für angewandte Kunst Wien

Nicole Stöcklmayr studied architecture with Hans Hollein, Greg Lynn and Zaha Hadid at the University of Applied Arts Vienna where she is currently writing her PhD thesis on digital visualizations in architecture. Stöcklmayr is a recipient of a DOC-fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences with her research focusing on the representation of architecture. Publications: „Architektur ohne Maßstab. Digitale Visualisierungen im Entwurfsprozess". In: Ingeborg Reichle, Steffen Siegel (eds.): Maßlose Bilder. Visuelle Ästhetik der Transgression (forthcoming in spring 2009). „Das digitale Bild des Architekturentwurfs". In: Florian Bettel, Barbara Hollendonner, Gerald Bast (eds.): uni*vers. Junge Forschung in Wissenschaft und Kunst. (forthcoming in fall 2009).

Diagrammatic Visualization as Aesthetic Information 

Within contemporary architecture diagrammatic visualizations are being used to develop, to articulate and finally to present architectural design. They are part of the architectural design process in which ideas, theories and concepts are being generated. The diagram may be a new tool and also a new representational technique. But it is first and foremost the expression of a new conception of designing without representing the final form. Furthermore, the diagrammatic visualization is based on a hermeneutical analysis of the genius loci, which defines the parameters for further decisions within the design process. The verification of internal and external correlations is inherent in the diagrammatic visualization as pictorial representation of aesthetic information. This epistemic knowledge accumulates into an architectural expertise that can contribute to the strategic construction of identity around a specific design site and program.

In referring to philosophers like Charles Sanders Peirce and Gilles Deleuze, and philosophers of science like Imre Lakatos and Thomas S. Kuhn, architects publish design projects with the intention to bring forth and make visible architectural knowledge. As a result, this knowledge becomes globally circulated and is established in schools of architecture.

If the process of architectural design in and with diagrammatic visualizations can be described as research, does the design result include knowledge? Or does not every design decision contain an interpretation and a design concept; is not every design derived from an underlying theory? These are the two questions I would like to examine based on recently built works by UN Studio.

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Anand Wadwekar, Hokkaido University, Japan

Anand Wadwekar is a PhD scholar at Hokkaido University, Japan with a Monbukagakusho scholarship from the Government of Japan. After graduation in architecture from Nagpur University (India), he entered the School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi for a Master of Architecture in urban design. He became a lecturer in architecture at Nagpur University. Before that, he worked as a research associate in Council of Architecture, a statutory body of Government of India. His research interests are ‘Culture of Congestion’, globalization, Asian urbanism and Deleuzian thoughts. He is currently doing research on Tokyo as patchwork city of ‘events’ and ‘fold’. He also takes keen interest in environmental issues and attended a two months international course at the United Nations University (UNU) Tokyo on globalization and environment.

The End of Plan - New Collage Cities of the Future. Fold and event of patchwork city 

With the world cities straightening global city regions, city is no more a single entity in space and time but rather a dispersed mass of ‘enclaved’ identities where heterogeneities interact to form urbanism of multiple and contested cultures. Zygmunt Bauman says "the end of Panopticon argues the end of era of mutual engagement: between the supervisors and supervised, capital and labour, leaders and their followers. The technique of power is now escape, slippage, elision and avoidance". Cities are escaping from definitive forms to which master plan tries to obligate.

Splintering is new amalgamation; cities are increasingly working in parts and parcel since intrusion of global communication networks. From the urban theory viewpoint, patchwork city is the process which is happening on a world scale, the fragmented islands are now acting as building blocks of the city. The principle of continuity is based no longer on ‘artifact’, but rather upon the networks that articulate and the background that surrounds them. The contemporary urban space is open and irregular body and is expressed trough three elements of constructed heterotopias, amorphous intermediate spaces and arterials. Constructed heterotopias interact with each other making the ‘events’ of urban instability and those are connected through the arterials. The new collage is unstable and is constantly moving, which provides arena for wide range of urban players. Flow is the new dynamic of arterials.

When exceptions are frequent, they become rules. Tokyo is full of exceptions. Tokyo is an anti-city. It is in constant denial of its existence, producing multiple landscapes of time, space and economy in global network. This city is constantly generating itself to form new identity. These ‘generic’ landscapes are building blocks of Tokyo. Since history, Tokyo has always been a patchwork metropolis composed of autonomous cells and with increasing ruptures and fragmentation; it became even more conducive for global ‘cityness’. The paper analyzes splintering urbanity with focus on Tokyo as a patchwork city of multiple collages.

The paper looks at how recent changes in urbanism and urban life-world are affecting the process of city planning which are beyond the reach of conventional methods and political form of urban design. In a given scenario, such processes are increasingly demanding the inclusion of ‘irrational’ and aesthetics of ‘fragmentation’ in urbanism. With hybrid and heterogeneous fragments becoming the building blocks of city, there are both advantages and danger to spirit of the city.

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